- FOR ELEMENTS OF ROMAN HISTORY, see the companion website for "The Romans" (Routledge 2014) which has timelines as well as detailed case studies and power points & bibliographies on certain topics.
- The Romans website
- For all historical enquiries and texts of major Greek authors, go to online sourcebook and locate the period on the left-hand menu;
- For gender studies see Diotima.
- For texts and for Plutarch and Suetonius specifically, click on links.
- A more advanced textual and image resource may be found at Perseus: homepage; Berlin mirror site. This amazing site also contains a historical overview of ancient Greek history.
SEMINAR 01: POWER TO THE PEOPLE? THE POPULAR ASSEMBLIES
NB see also sites listed under ‘Republican politics’
- Polybius, book 6 - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/polybius6.html
- About Polybius - http://www.barca.fsnet.co.uk/polybius.htm
- Article: ‘How democratic was the Roman Republic?’ by Allen Ward, Univ.of Connecticut - http://ablemedia.com/ctcweb/showcase/warddemocracy.html (NB this article is several pages long: keep clicking ‘next’ to read the whole thing).
- Rewiew of Henrik Mouritsen (2001), Plebs and Politics in Late Republican Rome - http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/2001/2001-12-12.html (From Bryn Mawr Classical Review).
SEMINAR 02: CATILINARIAN CONSPIRACY/IES
- Sallust, Conspiracy of Catiline - http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Sal.+Cat.+intro
- Cicero’s four speeches Against Catiline - http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Cic.+Catil.+1.1
- Suetonius, Life of Julius Caesar - http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Julius*.html or http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/suetonius-julius.html
LECTURE 01: WHAT CAN WE KNOW ABOUT EARLY ROME?
- Overview and timeline from Roman-Empire.net - http://www.roman-empire.net/republic/earlyrep-index.html
- Article: ‘Where did early Roman history come from?’, by Alan Davies, University College London - http://www.ucl.ac.uk/GrandLat/people/griffiths/collatin.htm
- Article on fasti, including fasti annales, from Smith’s Dictionary (1875) -http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Fasti.html
- Outline of the early development of the Republic - http://web.ics.purdue.edu/%7Erauhn/roman-constitution.htm
- Review of early Roman history - http://www.geocities.com/bwduncan/haids02.html (Covers the development of the Republic and early warfare)
LECTURE 02: WARFARE AND IMPERIALISM
- Article: Empire and Politics by Violence, to 79 BCE, by Frank E. Smitha - http://www.fsmitha.com/h1/ch16.htm
- Maps of the Roman Empire - http://intranet.dalton.org/groups/rome/RMaps.html
- Complete text of Tenney Frank (1914), Roman Imperialism - http://socserv2.socsci.mcmaster.ca/~econ/ugcm/3ll3/FrankTenney/RomanImp.pdf (NB: large pdf document. Requires Acrobat Reader and a good net connection. Chapters relevant to our period are chapter XII onwards, and you may use the bookmarked contents page to go directly to a particular chapter. Note also that the thinking in this book is now widely regarded as rather out of date).
- Review of R.M. Kallet-Marx (1995), Hegemony to Empire. The Development of the Roman Imperium in the East from 148 to 62 B.C. (Berkeley: University of California Press) - http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/1997/97.02.06.html (from Bryn Mawr Classical Review).
- The Roman Triumph - http://www.mtholyoke.edu/%7Emvbelous/triumph.html
- Roman ‘Triumph’ - http://www.barca.fsnet.co.uk/rome-triumph.htm (Includes part of text of Zonaras, Epitome 7.21, which is our main source for the nature of the triumph)
- Article on the Triumphus from Smith’s Dictionary (1875) - http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Triumphus.html
LECTURE 03: REPUBLICAN POLITICS BY THE MID-2ND CENTURY BC
- Roman government by Barbara McManus, College of New Rochelle - http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/romangvt.html (includes very helpful diagram of the cursus honorum)
- Notes on Roman Politics by Barbara McManus, College of New Rochelle - http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/politics.html
- Government of the Roman Republic - http://www.barca.fsnet.co.uk/rome-government.htm
- Article on the Roman Senate from World IQ.com encyclopaedia - http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Roman_Senate
- Article on the popular assemblies from World IQ.com encyclopaedia - http://www.wordiq.com/definition/Roman_assemblies
- ‘Pressure groups’ in Ancient Rome, 2nd and 1st centuries BC - http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/pressure.html (an overview of different social groups and their interests)
- Lecture notes on the Roman Constitution from the University of Texas - http://www.utexas.edu/depts/classics/documents/RepGov.html (OK, but beware suggestion on this page that the Comitia Plebis Tributa and the Comitia Populi Tributa were identical)
- Overview of the Roman ‘Constitution’ by Brent D. Shaw and Eric Kondratieff - http://www.sas.upenn.edu/%7Eekondrat/Rome_Govt.html (Includes useful, if slightly simplified, explanatory diagram).
- Ps.-Quintus Tullius Cicero, Commentariolum petitionis (‘A Short Guide to Electioneering’, possibly by Cicero’s brother, Quintus) - http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Q.+Cic.+Pet.+1 An extract is also available at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/54candidate.html
LECTURE 04: MISTRESS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN
- Plutarch’s Life of Cato - http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Cato_Major*.html or http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/mar_cato.html
- Caesar, Gallic Wars book 6 - http://classics.mit.edu/Caesar/gallic.6.6.html or http://mcadams.posc.mu.edu/txt/ah/Caesar/CaesarGal06.html
- Review of E. S. Gruen (1992), Culture and National Identity in Republican Rome- http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/1994/94.02.11.html (from Bryn Mawr Classical Review)
- Romans and non-Romans: Roman Foreign Relations to 70 B.C. - http://www.barca.fsnet.co.uk/rome-foreign-relations.htm
- Article on provincia from Smith’s Dictionary (1875) - http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Provincia.html
- List of Roman laws relating to provincial government - http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/RomanProvinces.html
- Overview of the development of the system of provincial government from Livius.org - http://www.livius.org/gi-gr/governor/governor.html (Also links to a similar article about the development of the provinces themselves)
- Article on foederati and socii (allies) from Smith’s Dictionary (1875) - http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Foederatae_Civitates.html
- Cicero’s Second Oration Against Verres - http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Cic.+Ver.+2 (One of two speeches made for the prosecution of Verres, accused of corrupt behaviour while governor of Sicily from 73-71 BC)
- Cicero, To his brother Quintus 1.1 - http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Cic.+Q.+fr.+1.1.1 (Written to Quintus when about to begin his third year of service as governor of Asia, 60 BC)
- Cicero, To Atticus 5.21 - http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Cic.+Att.+5.21 (Written to his friend, Atticus, when serving as provincial governor himself in Cilicia)
- Article: Roman slavery – the social, cultural, political, and demographic consequences by Moya K. Mason - http://www.moyak.com/researcher/resume/papers/roman_slavery.html
- Slavery in Society in ancient Rome - http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/~thurley/project.html (a course web-site from the University of Pennsylvania)
LECTURE 05: THE GRACCHI: ROMAN REVOLUTIONARIES?
- Appian, The Civil Wars - http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Appian/home.html
- Plutarch’s Life of Caius Gracchus - http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/gracchus.html
- Plutarch’s Life of Tiberius Gracchus - http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/tiberius.html
- Review of A. Lintott (1992), Judicial Reform and Land Reform in the Roman Republic - http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/bmcr/1995/95.04.15.html (From Bryn Mawr Classical Review).
- ‘How to Ruin a Perfectly Good Republic’ (course site from Bates University) - http://abacus.bates.edu/~mimber/Rciv/2nd.cen2.htm (includes useful links to other sites on the Gracchi and related topics)
- Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus - http://heraklia.fws1.com/contemporaries/gracchi/index.html
- Equites – article from Ancient History About.com- http://ancienthistory.about.com/cs/rome/p/equites.htm
- Article on equites from Smith’s Dictionary (1875) - http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/secondary/SMIGRA*/Equites.html
- Coin showing voting with tablets - http://www.beastcoins.com/Republican/P-Licinius-Nerva/P-Licinius-Nerva.htm
- The Allobroges (Gallic tribe) - http://www.barca.fsnet.co.uk/Allobroges.htm
- Transalpine Gaul - the defeat of 121 BC - http://www.barca.fsnet.co.uk/transalpine-gaul-defeat121bc.htm
- Gaul before the Romans - http://www.barca.fsnet.co.uk/gaul-before-romans.htm
- Massalia / Massilia - http://www.barca.fsnet.co.uk/masalia.htm
LECTURE 06: MARIUS AND SULLA: ‘SAVING’ THE REPUBLIC
- Article on Jugurtha from Livius.org - http://www.livius.org/jo-jz/jugurtha/jugurtha.html
- Sallust, The War With Jugurtha - http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Sal.+Jug.+1
- Plutarch’s Life of Marius - http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Marius*.html
- Plutarch’s Life of Sulla - http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Sulla*.html
- Appian, Civil Wars book 1 - http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Appian/Civil_Wars/1*.html
- Gaius Marius: the reforms and the man - http://faculty.vassar.edu/jolott/old_courses/republic1998/marius/ (continue the story by following the link to ‘The Marian Reforms’ at bottom of page)
- Gaius Marius - http://heraklia.fws1.com/contemporaries/marius/index.html
- Marius from Roman-Empire.net - http://www.roman-empire.net/republic/marius.html
- L. Appuleius Saturninus, Dictionary of Political Figures - http://www.explore-biography.com/political_figures/L/Lucius_Appuleius_Saturninus.html
- P. Sulpicius Rufus on ‘Love to Know’ - http://45.1911encyclopedia.org/S/SU/SULPICIUS_RUFUS_PUBLIUS.htm
- Plutarch’s Life of Sulla - http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/sylla.html
- Lucius Cornelius Sulla - http://heraklia.fws1.com/contemporaries/sulla/
LECTURE 07: POMPEY AND CAESAR: WHEN AMICITIA BECOMES DOMINATIO
- Plutarch’s Life of Pompey - http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/pompey.html
- Plutarch’s Life of Caesar - http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/caesar.html
- Plutarch’s Life of Crassus - http://classics.mit.edu/Plutarch/crassus.html
- Cicero, Pro Lege Manilia (aka ‘On Pompey’s Command) - http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Cic.+Man.+1
- Extracts from Pliny the Elder and Cicero on Pompey - http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/PompeyTheGreat.html
- Sources on Mithradates and the conquest of the east, 90-61 BC - http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/mithradates1.html (From the Halsall Ancient History Sourcebook)
- Theatrum Pompei site - http://www.theaterofpompey.com/ (Much material on both Pompey and his theatre in Rome)
- Cassius Dio, Roman History (See books 36-42) - http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Cassius_Dio/home.html
- Article on the meaning of ‘triumvir’ from Livius.org - http://www.livius.org/to-ts/triumvir/triumvir.html
LECTURE 08: HOC VOLUERUNT: CIVIL WAR AND ASSASSINATION
- Suetonius, Life of Julius Caesar - http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Suetonius/12Caesars/Julius*.html
- Julius Caesar: the last dictator - http://heraklia.fws1.com/ (a very full site, covering all aspects of Caesar’s life and times)
- Caesar by Jona Lendering - http://www2.cs.uh.edu/~clifton/caesar.html
- Caesar by Barbara McManus - http://www.vroma.org/~bmcmanus/caesar.html
- Cicero, Ad. Fam. 9.17 (to Paetus) - http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?lookup=Cic.+Fam.+9.17
- Coin minted by Brutus to celebrate the Ides of March, 44 BC - http://www-cm.fitzmuseum.cam.ac.uk/coins/coinofthemoment/Ides/Ides.html
- Coins images illustrating the aftermath of Caesar’s assassination, the period of the triumvirate and the rise to power of Octavian - http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~ekondrat/Octavian3.html
LECTURE 09: THE ESTABLISHMENT OF THE PRINCIPATE
- Resources for Augustus, by Eric Kondratieff - http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~ekondrat/Augustus.html (has lots of very useful links: explore this page in detail!)
- From Octavian to Augustus: timeline and images, - http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~ekondrat/Octavian.html
- English translation of Augustus’ Res Gestae - http://classics.mit.edu/Augustus/deeds.html (Long excerpts from the Res Gestae are also to be found at http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/14resgestae.html, but use the full version for preference: this is only in case it goes down).
- Biography of Augustus on De Imperatoribus Romanis - http://www.roman-emperors.org/auggie.htm
- Augustus photo gallery (with articles too) - http://sights.seindal.dk/sight/727_Imperator_Caesar_Augustus.html
- Augustan Timeline - http://www.vroma.org/%7Ejruebel/timeline/augustan.html
Augustus: a man for all seasons from VRoma - http://www.vroma.org/%7Ebmcmanus/augustus2.html (A nice summary of his methods and importance)