Mapping the chromatin landscape and Blimp1 transcriptional targets that regulate trophoblast differentiation
Nelson A.C., Mould A.W., Bikoff E.K. and Robertson E.J
Trophoblast stem cells (TSCs) give rise to specialized cell types of foetal origin within the placenta. Changes in gene expression during differentiation is partly controlled through altered access to specific DNA sequences within the genome. We examined genome-wide changes in accessibility during early trophoblast differentiation, identifying thousands of DNA sequences responsible for activation of gene expression. This work represents a first step towards understanding regulation of gene expression during trophoblast differentiation, with a particular focus on invasive endovascular cells.
Draft Genome Sequence of Bacteriophage vB_Eco_swan01
Slawomir Michniewski, Tamsin Redgwell, David J Scanlan, Andrew D Millard
Bacteriophage vB_Eco_swan01 was isolated from an ornamental pool using Escherichia coli MG1655 as the host. Bacteriophage vB_Eco_swan01 has limited similarity with other known phages at the nucleotide level and likely represents a new bacteriophage species within the Tunavirinae.
Systemic insecticide treatment of the canine reservoir of Trypanosoma cruzi induces high levels of lethality in Triatoma infestans, a principal vector of Chagas disease.
Loza A, Talaga A, Herbas G, Canaviri J, Cahuasiri T, Luck L, Guibarra A, Goncalves R Pereira JA, Gomez SA, Picado A, Messenger LA, Bern C, Courtenay O
Trypanosoma cruzi infection remains a considerable public health problem across Central and South America where vector-borne transmission persists. In the Gran Chaco region, peridomestic animals are major blood-meal sources for triatomines, and household presence of infected dogs increases T. cruzi transmission risk for humans. This study evaluated the systemic activity of three commercial, oral, single dose insecticides against Triatoma infestans, the principal domestic vector species in the region. Our data showed that Fluralaner represents an ideal insecticide for development into a complementary, operationally-feasible, community-level method of reducing triatomine infestation and potentially controlling T. cruzi transmission.
Predicting the spread of the Asian hornet (Vespa velutina) following its incursion into Great Britain.
The yellow-legged or Asian hornet (Vespa velutina) is native to South-East Asia, and is a voracious predator of pollinating insects including honey bees. Since its accidental introduction into South-Western France in 2004, V. velutina has spread to much of western Europe. The presence of V. velutina in Great Britain was first confirmed in September 2016. The likely dynamics following an initial incursion are uncertain, especially the risk of continued spread, and the likely success of control measures. Here we extrapolate from the situation in France to quantify the potential invasion of V. velutina in Great Britain
Proof of concept and feasibility studies examining the influence of combination ribose, adenine and allopurinol treatment on stroke outcome in the rat
Kiterie ME Faller, Joshua Leach, Pamela Johnston, William M Holmes, Mhairi Macrae, Bruno G Frenguelli
Cerebran ischaemia results in a rapid and profound depletion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the energy currency of the cell. This depletion leads to disruption of cellular homeostasis and cell death. Early replenishment of ATP levels might therefore have a neuroprotective effect in the injured brain. The ATP precursors, D-ribose and adenine (RibAde), restored the reduced ATP levels in rat brain slices to values similar to those measured in the intact rodent brain. The aim of this study was to assess whether RibAde, either alone or in combination with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol could improve outcome in an in vivo rodent model of transient cerebral ischaemia. Our data supports the potential use of ribose, adenine and allopurinol in the treatment of cerebral ischaemic injury, especially since all compounds have been used in man.
Deirdre Hollingsworth publications
Innovative tools and approaches to end the transmission of Mycobacterium leprae.
Peter Steinmann, Steven G Reed, Fareed Mirza, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Jan Hendrik Richardus
Leprosy control has made great strides in recent years, but there remain millions of people with disabilities and over 200,000 million people newly diagnosed last year. There is therefore a shift required to take leprosy control towards the ultimate goal of zero new transmissions. In the paper the authors examine the approaches and tools that are needed to execute this zero-transmission strategy.
Cost-effectiveness of screening for HIV in primary care: a health economics modelling analysis
Rebecca F Baggaley, Michael A Irvine, Werner Leber, Valentina Cambiano, Jose Figueroa, Heather McMullen, Jane Anderson, Andreia C Santos, Fern Terris-Prestholt, Alec Miners, T Déirdre Hollingsworth, Chris J Griffiths.
Early HIV diagnosis reduces morbidity, mortality, the probability of onward transmission, and their associated costs, but might increase cost because of earlier initiation of antiretroviral treatment (ART). We investigated this trade-off by estimating the cost-effectiveness of HIV screening in primary care. We predict it to be cost-effective in the UK in the medium term. The intervention might also be cost-effective sooner in settings where long-term health-care costs of late-diagnosed patients in high-prevalence regions are much higher (≥60%) than those of patients diagnosed earlier. Screening for HIV in primary care is cost-effective and should be promoted. The Lancet HIV. July 2017
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