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Landscapes of Secrecy

LANDSCAPES OF SECRECY

THE CIA AND THE CONTESTED RECORD OF US FOREIGN POLICY 1947-2001

 

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Since 1947, American espionage and covert operations have enjoyed a uniquely high profile. This is partly because of a taste for 'covert' interventions that were often impossible to keep hidden from public view; for example, the Bay of Pigs fiasco. Frequent revelations also reflected a written constitution that guaranteed investigative journalists relative immunity. Throughout this period, the history of the CIA has constituted something of a battleground with conflicting official and unofficial accounts.

CIA activity has often been redolent of wider issues in American foreign policy. These include a long-standing oscillation between interventionism and isolationism, between presidential leadership and democratic foreign policy, and also between exceptionalism and univeralist approaches to human rights. Public moves by both the President and Congress after 1975 to restrict - and then unleash - the CIA underline its symbolic importance.

The project, which is funded by the AHRC, is organised into three main 'strands'. The first strand focuses on the struggle over the appearance of the CIA in the State Department's respected series of published historical documents. A high profile battle between academics, the State Department and the CIA prompted legislative intervention by Congress in 1991.

The second strand constitutes an analysis of the production and role of CIA memoirs by retired CIA officers. More than ninety CIA memoirs have been published. Because of the uneven nature of primary historical documentation concerning the intelligence, memoirs have exercised a disproportionate influence upon the construction of CIA history. Controversially, some retirees published 'renegade' memoirs that were uncensored.

The third strand explores the realm of 'spy-faction', or lightly fictionalized accounts of real events. This popular form of CIA 'history' has achieved a wide reception as the result of transfer to the cinema screen. Retirees and even governments often work with film companies to enhance their 'reality' and recently assisted with the film 'The Good Shepherd'.

These three strands have been selected for their importance within the overall construction of American foreign policy. They have also been chosen because pilot projects have identified excellent, and hitherto unused, archival material at the US National Archives as well at other repositories at Texas and Stanford.

The project team represents a multi-disciplinary collaboration between the Universities of Warwick and Nottingham. It comprises academics experienced in the fields of the American studies, diplomatic history and the history of intelligence, together with Cold War literature and film. We hope that the project will interest not only scholars of American foreign policy, but also policy-makers and the general public.

 

LATEST PUBLICATION >

 

Simon Willmetts, 'Quiet Americans: The CIA and Early Cold War Hollywood Cinema', Journal of American Studies, FirstView, 1-21.

 

 

RADIO 4 "DOCUMENT" 15 AUGUST 2011 AT 20.00 CO-OPERATES WITH

THE LANDSCAPES PROJECT TO FOCUS ON A KEY INTELLIGENCE EPISODE >

 

NIXON AND KISSINGER DISCUSS CUTTING OFF THE ANGLO-AMERICAN INTELLIGENCE RELATIONSHIP  

 

 

MAJOR CONFERENCE ON THE HISTORY OF THE CIA - 29/30 APRIL 2011

"LANDSCAPES OF SECRECY: THE CIA IN HISTORY, FICTION, AND MEMORY"

 

VENUE: EAST MIDLANDS CONFERENCE CENTRE, UNIVERSITY OF NOTTINGHAM, NG2 7RD, UK

 

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PLEASE NOTE THAT THIS UNIQUE CONFERENCE WAS OPEN TO THE PUBLIC

YOU CAN LISTEN TO THE WHOLE CONFERENCE FOR FREE HERE >>>

AUDIO RECORDING OF ALL THE PANELS AT THE CONFERENCE

 

 

LANDSCAPES OF SECRECY: THE CIA IN HISTORY, FICTION, AND MEMORY: PROGRAMME

 

DAY 1: FRIDAY 29 APRIL 2011

8.30 onwards: Registration for delegates in Atrium

8.30 onwards: Tea and coffee available for delegates in Banqueting Suite

Conference Centre rooms: Refreshments and meals are usually served in the Banqueting Suite, plenary addresses delivered in the Theatre, and panel sessions held in Suites 1, 2 and 3. Terminals with free internet access are available in the area between

Suites 1

and 2, and the whole Conference Centre is wi-fi enabled (under the network name ‘Conference’).

 

9.20 Conference Theatre, Opening Remarks, Professor Richard J. Aldrich, University of Warwick

 

9.35-11.15 Conference

Suite 1

Panel 1a: Origins: OSS and the rebirth of the CIA

Chair: Dr Kaeten Mistry, University of Warwick

Professor Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, University of Edinburgh

"The Origins of the CIA"

Professor Richard Immerman, Temple University

“From the OSS to the CIA: Whither Go Covert Operations?”

Professor Nick Cullather, Indiana University

“The CIA, the culture of intelligence failure, and the Bogotazo episode of 1948’

 

 

9.35-11.15 Conference

Suite 2

Panel 1b: The CIA, Television and Film

Chair/Discussant: Professor Tony Shaw, University of Hertfordshire

Simon Willmetts, University of Warwick

"Louis De Rochemont, Hollywood and the CIA: A Volatile Relationship”

Dr Trevor McCrisken, University of Warwick

"The CIA and American Television"

 

11.15-11.30 Banqueting Suite

Tea and coffee available

 

11.30-1.15 Conference

Suite 1

Panel 2a: The CIA in the early Cold War

Chair: Dr Helen Laville, University of Birmingham

Dr David Robarge, CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence

Origins and Development of the CIA Paramilitary function in the early Cold War”

Professor Hugh Wilford, California State University Long Beach

“America’s Great Game: The CIA and the Arab World in the Early Cold War”

Laura Moorhead, Independent Scholar

“ Norwood Allman, the CIA and Representations of Intelligence”

 

 

 

11.30-1.15 Conference

Suite 2

Panel 2b: The CIA and their friends

Chair: Dr Bevan Sewell, University of Nottingham

Professor Cees Wiebes, NcTB Netherlands

“Oh my God, the Dutch did it again” : The Dutch-CIA intelligence liaison ”

Peer Henrik Hansen, Cold War Museum , Denmark

“Cooperation, complications and covert operations: CIA and Danish Intelligence, 1946-63”

Stefania Paladini, Coventry University

“Viewed by the Allies: Italy and the CIA”

 

11.30-1.15 Conference

Suite 3

Panel 2c: The CIA and American Faction and Fiction and the Press

Chair/Discussant: Professor Wesley Wark, University of Toronto

Professor Fred Hitz, University of Virginia

"The Myths and Reality of Espionage”

Professor Jonathan Nashel, University of South Bend , Indiana

“Ian Fleming and Allen Dulles: Facts, Fictions, and Empires”

Professor Richard J. Aldrich, University of Warwick

"Renegades and Outriders: The CIA and Journalism"

 

1.15 – 2.30 Banqueting Suite

Lunch

 

2.30-3.30 Conference Theatre

Keynote Speech

Chair: Professor Shearer West, Director of Research, Arts and Humanities Research Council

Professor Robert Jervis, Columbia University

"Why the CIA Doesn't Do Better"

 

3.30-3.45: Banqueting Suite

Tea and coffee available

 

3.45 -5.30 Conference

Suite 1

Panel 3a: The CIA, declassification, and the Foreign Relations of the United States series

Chair: Professor Richard Immerman, Temple University

Ted Keefer, former general editor of the Foreign Relations of the United States series, Office of the Historian, State Department

“The Foreign Relations series and secrecy”

Professor Robert J. McMahon, Mershon Center , Ohio State University

“The CIA and the FRUS series: the Indonesian case”

Dr Paul McGarr, University of Nottingham

“’Playing Games with History’: The State Department, the CIA, and the FRUS series”

 

3.45 -5.30 Conference

Suite 2

Panel 3b: Lost landscapes

Chair/Discussant: Dr Steve Hewitt, University of Birmingham

Dr Zakia Shiraz, University of Warwick

"White Out: The CIA and the Drugs Debate"

Dr Helen Laville, University of Birmingham

"Women and the CIA"

Dr Dominik Smyrgala, Faculty of International Relations

Collegium Civitas, Poland

 

“The CIA and Polish Cold War Film and Literature”

 

3.45 –5.30 Conference

Suite 3

Panel 3c: The changing roles of the CIA and the globalisation of intelligence

Chair/Discussant: Professor Scott Lucas, University of Birmingham

Eugene S. Poteat, AFIO

“The Ever-Changing Role of the CIA: From OSS Covert Operations, to Analysis, to High-Tech and Back”

Dr Adam Svendsen, Research Consultant, International Relations and Strategic Studies

“The CIA and the Globalisation of Intelligence”

 

6.30 onwards Cash Bar opens in Atrium

 

7.30 Banqueting Suite

Conference Dinner (wine available throughout from bar and wine waiters on a cash basis)

After dinner speaker:

Professor Chris Andrew, Corpus Christi College , Cambridge

“'The CIA and US Intelligence: the view from Moscow and London ”

Main conference bar remains open until 1am

DAY 2: SATURDAY 30 APRIL 2011

8.30 onwards, Day 2 only delegates registration in Atrium

8.30 onwards Banqueting Suite

Tea and coffee available

 

9.00-10.30 Conference

Suite 1

Panel 4a: Cuba, the Bay of Pigs, and the CIA

Chair: Professor Randall B. Woods, University of Arkansas

Professor Peter Kornbluh, National Security Archive

"Cuba, the Bay of Pigs and the CIA"

James Perry, Independent Scholar

‘The Necessary Failure: the Bay of Pigs in Global Context”

 

9.00-10.30 Conference

Suite 2

Panel 4b: The CIA, Memoirs and Secrecy

Chair/Discussant: Dr David Robarge, CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence

Professor Mark Fenster

 

“Varieties of Deference to ‘Extraordinary Needs’: CIA and Secrecy in the Courts”

Dr Chris Moran, University of Warwick

"Memories and Memoirs"

John Hollister Hedley, former chairman of CIA Publications Review Board

“The CIA and the review of publications by CIA authors”

 

9.00-10.30 Conference

Suite 3

Panel 4c: The CIA and intelligence assessment in historical perspective

Chair: Ted Keefer, former general editor of the Foreign Relations of the United States series, Office of the Historian, State Department

Professor Len Scott, Aberystwyth University

The CIA and the Cuban Missile Crisis”

Dr David Milne, University of East Anglia

“Excessive Optimism and the politicization of intelligence on Vietnam”

Dr Robert McNamara, University of Ulster

“US intelligence assessments and the ‘Unholy alliance’ of Southern Africa c. 1960-80”

 

10.30-10.45 Banqueting Suite

Tea and coffee available

 

10.45-12.15 Conference

Suite 1

Panel 5a: The CIA in the era of the Nixon administration

Chair: Professor Peter Kornbluh, National Security Archive

Professor Randall B. Woods, University of Arkansas

“William E. Colby and the CIA”

Dr Kristian Gustafson, Brunel University

"Nixon, Kissinger, the CIA, and Chile"

 

 

 

10.45-12.15 Conference

Suite 2

Panel 5b: The CIA and the post-Cold War world

Chair/Discussant: Dr Steve Hewitt, University of Birmingham

Dr Stephen Marrin. Brunel University

"The CIA’s analysis in the post-Cold War World"

Dr Maria Ryan, University of Nottingham

"The IAEA and the Successful Denuclearization of Iraq: How could the CIA get it so wrong?”

Tony Field, University of Warwick

“The CIA and counter-terrorism intelligence”

 

10.45-12.15 Conference

Suite 3

Panel 5c: CIA Operations and the question of Covert Action

Chair/Discussant: Professor Rhodri Jeffreys-Jones, University of Edinburgh

Dr David Robarge, CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence

“CIA Covert Action and Democracy”

Dr David Ryan, University College , Cork

“Mining Nicaragua’s Harbours and Undermining CIA Recovery ”

John Prados, National Security Archive

“Whither Covert Operations?”

 

12.15-1.15 Banqueting Suite

Lunch

 

 

1.15-2.15 Conference Theatre

Plenary lecture

Chair: Professor Richard J. Aldrich, University of Warwick

Professor Wesley Wark, University of Toronto

The Popular Culture of Espionage: From the Great White Spy Chief to the End of Faction"

 

2.15-3.45 Conference

Suite 1

Panel 6a: Counter-intelligence and the Soviet Bloc

Chair/Discussant: Nigel West

Hayden Peake

“On the Origins of Cold War Counterintelligence in the United States”

Professor Jonathan Haslam, University of Cambridge

“Soviet counter-intelligence against US operations in Moscow ”

Dr Paul Maddrell, Aberystwyth University

“The CIA and the GDR in the Cold War”

 

2.15-3.45 Conference

Suite 2

Panel 6b: Cultural encounters

Chair/Discussant: Professor Fred Hitz, University of Virginia

Dr Jason Harding, School of Advanced Study, University of London

“The CIA and Encounter magazine”

Professor Kathryn Olmsted, UC Davis

“The CIA and Conspiracy Theories”

 

2.15-3.45 Conference

Suite 3

Panel 6c: Technical Collection, and the National Estimating System

Chair/Discussant Cees Wiebes, NcTB Netherlands

Dr Matthew Aid, National Security Archive

“The CIA sigint programme and its relations with the NSA”

Chris Pocock, author and defense editor

“The Black Bats: Covert Air Operations over China from Taiwan, 1951-1969”

Dr Philip Davies, Brunel University

“The CIA versus the NIE”

 

3.45-4.15 Banqueting Suite

Tea and coffee available

 

4.15-5.45 Conference

Suite 1

Roundtable panel 7a: The CIA and declassification

Chair: Dr Matthew Aid, National Security Archive

Dr David Robarge, CIA Center for the Study of Intelligence

“Recent CIA initiatives in the field”

Professor Nick Cullather, Indiana University  

Professor Mark Fenster, University of Florida

Professor Richard Immerman, Temple University

Dr Paul McGarr, University of Nottingham

Professor Robert J. McMahon, Mershon Center , Ohio State University

 

4.15-5.45 Conference

Suite 2

Roundtable panel 7b: The CIA and post-war American culture

Chair/Discussant: Professor Scott Lucas, University of Birmingham

Professor Fred Hitz, University of Virginia

Professor Peter Kornbluh, National Security Archive

Professor Jonathan Nashel, University of South Bend , Indiana

Professor Wesley Wark, University of Toronto

Professor Hugh Wilford, California State University , Long Beach

 

DAY 3: SUNDAY 1 MAY

For those still with us, postgraduate sessions in US foreign relations, a buffet lunch, and a final lecture will be held in the Trent Building (the building with clock tower at the centre of the campus), rooms B40 and B46; the only access to the Trent Building on Sundays is via the Porter’s Lodge/Enquiry Office on Floor A (on the ground floor of the building on the east side of the quad).

9.30-10.00 Tea and coffee available, room B46

10.00-11.00 Postgraduate panel A on US foreign relations, sponsored by the Eccles Centre at the British Library, room B40

Chair: Professor Matthew Jones, University of Nottingham

“Same as the Old Boss? US Perceptions of the Soviet Leadership and the “New Course”, 1953”

Wes Ullrich, London School of Economics

“Rethinking America and Iran in the 1960s”

Ben Offiler, University of Nottingham

11.00-11.30 Tea and coffee available, room B46

11.30-12.30 Postgraduate panel B on US foreign relations, sponsored by the Eccles Centre at the British Library, room B40

Chair: Professor Matthew Jones, University of Nottingham

“’Bound to be stillborn”? American-Egyptian antebellum strategic dialogue and American policy during the fourth Arab-Israeli War, 1973”

Aidan Condron, Aberystwyth University

“Deeper and deeper in trouble on the intervention side”: Lyndon Johnson, Thomas Mann, and the Dominican Republic intervention of 1965”

Thomas Allcock, University of Cambridge

12.30 – 1.30pm Buffet lunch, room B46

1.30-2.30pm: Closing lecture, room B40

Professor Richard J. Aldrich, University of Warwick

“The History of GCHQ”

 

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