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WRAP: Warwick Research Archive Portal: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

Roots are key organs for the uptake of nutrients in plants. Leguminous plants form nodules, providing a niche for symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria, enabling plants to colonize nitrogen depleted soils. Lateral root formation shares genetic regulation, as well as developmental features, with nodulation. This led us to investigate whether shared genetic control can be revealed in lateral root development responses of Arabidopsis thaliana to rhizobia.

The phenotypic response of Arabidopsis to Sinorhizobium meliloti was analyzed. Arabidopsis lateral root length was found to be shorter, indicating a potential link between bacterial perception and lateral root development, even in a non symbiotic host plant. To gain more insight, a transcriptome time series was carried out. The response of Arabidopsis to Sinorhizobium inoculation compared to the response of nitrogen treatment were analyzed. In order to identify highly localized, yet important minimal regulatory cues and maximize the spatial specificity of the data, this analysis was carried out in isolated cortical and pericycle cells. Combined, in response to the two treatments approximately a 20% of the Arabidopsis genome is differentially expressed during the first 48 hours. Bioinformatic tools (clustering and network inference) were used to obtain a chronology of different responses, highlighting which metabolic processes change over time and identify potential gene regulatory mechanisms. The data and approach presented here present a unique analysis of the response to Sinorhizobium and nitrogen treatment and open the way to further tissue specific analysis of transcriptional regulation in plants.

The similarities and differences between the response to Sinorhizobium (a potentially neutral bacteria) and Ralstonia (a pathogen of Arabidopsis roots) were evaluated using an analysis of gene expression at two early time points after inoculation. There was significant overlap in transcriptional response to both treatments, as well as striking differences: we find pathogen defense genes in the response to Sinorhizobium, rather than Ralstonia. We also find a core of 11 auxin responsive genes that have similar differential expression between treatments.

Our results show that Rhizobium has a distinct transcriptional and phenotypic effect on Arabidopsis roots that is distinct from a pathogenic interaction. Several network hub genes are proposed as potential targets for further studying this effect.

This thesis is organised around three chapters. Each examine patterns of cognition that can lead some people toward or away from the various stages of suicidality; thoughts, plans or attempts to die.
Chapter 1 presents a systematic review of the literature, examining the relationship between optimism and suicidal ideations. The emerging evidence-base suggests the existence of a weak to moderate negative relationship; as levels of optimism increase, so the strength of suicidal thoughts are weakened. The studies reviewed also indicate that the utility of optimism is more evident in terms of its moderating or mediating effect on other prominent variables such as hopelessness and life-stressors. The clinical significance of these findings are discussed and suggestions for future research considered.
Chapter 2 details an empirical investigation of Rudd's Suicidal Belief System (SBS) and its role, alongside other psycho-social factors, in formulating a risk prediction model of suicidality. The study adopted a cross-sectional design, employing a range of psychometrically valid self-report measures. The sample population consisted of 114 participants, representing a control group: 'Nevers'; and three different levels of suicidality: 'Thinkers'; 'Planners'; 'Attempters'. Principal Axis Factoring confirmed the existence of Rudd's underlying SBS. That is, a pattern of cognitions characterised by a pervasive sense of hopelessness; that life was 'unbearable', problems were 'unsolvable', and the suicidal person was 'unlovable'. Analysis of Variance suggested that the intensity of these cognitions were strongly differentiated by depression severity, though the causal nature of the relationship between cognitive and affective states was difficult to determine. Binary Logistic Regression helped formulate a tentative risk prediction model of suicidality, organised around the traits of hopelessness, low resilience, and neurotic personality-type. Clinical implications of the findings are discussed, alongside suggestions for future research on patterns of suicidality and cognition.
Chapter 3 recounts my reflections on the research process and its influence on my personal and professional development. This discussion is framed around Beck's cognitive triad; reflections linked with my 'self', the world in which I live and work, and my future-outlook.

Plants are extremely versatile organisms that respond to the environment in which they find themselves, but a large part of their development is under genetic regulation. The links between developmental parameters and yield are poorly understood in oilseed rape; understanding this relationship will help growers to predict their yields more accurately and breeders to focus on traits that may lead to yield improvements. To determine the relationship between seed yield and other agronomic traits, we investigated the natural variation that already exists with regards to resource allocation in 37 lines of the crop species Brassica napus. Over 130 different traits were assessed; they included seed yield parameters, seed composition, leaf mineral analysis, rates of pod and leaf senescence and plant architecture traits. A stepwise regression analysis was used to model statistically the measured traits with seed yield per plant. Above-ground biomass and protein content together accounted for 94.36% of the recorded variation. The primary raceme area, which was highly correlated with yield parameters (0.65), provides an early indicator of potential yield. The pod and leaf photosynthetic and senescence parameters measured had only a limited influence on seed yield and were not correlated with each other, indicating that reproductive development is not necessarily driving the senescence process within field-grown B. napus. Assessing the diversity that exists within the B. napus gene pool has highlighted architectural, seed and mineral composition traits that should be targeted in breeding programmes through the development of linked markers to improve crop yields.

The thesis explores developments in the treatment of eating disorders (EDs) and the experiences of men living with an ED. The first chapter is a systematic review of a transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural model of treatment for EDs (CBT–E). Following database searches 15 studies were included for review. Results highlight that CBT-E appears to be an effective treatment option, with an indication that results transfer to clinical settings. Strengths and limitations of the included studies are discussed and implications for practice are considered. Areas for further study are recommended.
The second chapter is a qualitative study investigating men's experiences of developing and living with an ED. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) was employed to facilitate an in-depth exploration into participants' experiences. The ED taking control; the ED consuming their life; the conflict between letting go and holding onto the ED; and questioning of masculine identity were themes which emerged from participants lived experiences. Implications for clinical practice and directions for future research are highlighted.
The third chapter presents a reflective account of undertaking the research project. Parallels between the experiences of participants and the researchers own experiences as a man are considered.

Many existing signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) estimators were designed and evaluated for conventional one-hop communications systems. However, for a relaying system, it is the end-to-end SNR that determines the system performance. In this paper, we will fill this gap by evaluating the performances of the existing SNR estimators in a dual-hop relaying system used for each hop. The probability density functions of the SNR estimators are first derived, whose parameters are fitted as functions of the sample size and the true value of SNR. Using them, the cumulative distribution functions of the end-to-end SNR and the bit error rate performance for a relaying system are derived. Numerical results show that the squared signal-to-noise variance estimator has the best performance for small SNRs and the second-order fourth-order moments estimator has the best performance for large SNRs, while the signalto-variation ratio estimator has the worst performance, among the existing SNR estimators, for AF relaying systems.

System Dynamics (SD) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) follow two quite different modeling philosophies and can bring very different but, nevertheless, complimentary insights in understanding the same 'real world' problem. Thus learning SD and DES approaches require students to absorb different modeling philosophies usually through specific and distinct courses. We run a course where we teach model conceptualization for SD and DES in parallel and, then, the technical training on SD and DES software in sequential order. The ability of students to assimilate, and then put into practice both modeling approaches, was evaluated using simulation-based problems. While we found evidence that students can master both simulation techniques, we observed that they were better able to develop skills at representing the tangible characteristics of systems, the realm of DES, rather than conceptualizing the intangible properties of systems such as feedback processes, the realm of SD. Suggestions and reflections on teaching both simulation methods together are proposed. System Dynamics (SD) and Discrete Event Simulation (DES) follow two quite different modeling philosophies and can bring very different but, nevertheless, complimentary insights in understanding the same 'real world' problem. Thus learning SD and DES approaches require students to absorb different modeling philosophies usually through specific and distinct courses. We run a course where we teach model conceptualization for SD and DES in parallel and, then, the technical training on SD and DES software in sequential order. The ability of students to assimilate, and then put into practice both modeling approaches, was evaluated using simulation-based problems. While we found evidence that students can master both simulation techniques, we observed that they were better able to develop skills at representing the tangible characteristics of systems, the realm of DES, rather than conceptualizing the intangible properties of systems such as feedback processes, the realm of SD. Suggestions and reflections on teaching both simulation methods together are proposed.

In this paper, a complete sensitivity analysis of the optimal parameters for the axial flux permanent magnet synchronous machines working in the field weakening region is implemented. Thanks to the presence of a parameterized accurate analytical model, it is possible to obtain all the required parameters of the machine. The two goals of the ideal design are to maximize the power density: Pdensity and the ratio of maximal to rated speed: nmax/nr, which is an inductance related parameter keeping the efficiency at the target speed above 90%. Different slots/poles/phases combinations are studied to reveal the optimum combination for each phase. This paper has studied the effect of the ratio of number of stator slots to number of rotor poles on the Pdensity and nmax/nr. It is shown that a low value of this parameter results in a better Pdensity and nmax/nr. The effect of the outer diameter, and the inner to outer diameter ratio are studied with respect to the two design goals. In addition, a comparison between the finite and the theoretical infinite speed designs is implemented. A complete 3D finite element validation has proven the robustness of the analytical model.

This thesis consists of three papers: a literature review, an empirical paper and a reflective paper. The systematic literature review examines the role of dissociation within eating disorders. Thirty-four articles meeting the inclusion criteria were identified through database searches and manual searches. The findings of these articles were reviewed and critically appraised. The evidence reviewed indicates that dissociation in people with an eating disorder diagnosis may have a number of roles. Individuals with an eating disorder diagnosis may use dissociation as a means of managing certain affective states and dissociation may also act as a means of separating oneself from eating disorder symptomatology. In addition, dissociation may play a role in the development of eating disorders in individuals who have also experienced trauma. Methodological limitations, clinical implications and future research recommendations are considered. There is a need for staff in eating disorder services to be aware of dissociation and to use or develop interventions which take this into consideration. Further research, using a wider variety of methodologies, is needed, in particular to further elucidate the relationship of
dissociation to eating disorder symptomatology.
The empirical paper is a qualitative exploration of the lived experience of dissociation in individuals with a diagnosis of psychotic disorders. Five participants were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. The transcripts of interviews were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. One super-ordinate theme emerged from the analysis. 'Emotional impact of unsafe uncertainty' describes the emotions evoked by dissociative experiences and the uncertainty that surrounds exploration of these experiences for participants. Themes are discussed and considered in relation to clinical implications. Further research is needed to more carefully consider the role of dissociation within psychotic disorders.
Finally, the reflective paper discusses the author's experience of the process of research and exploring experiences of dissociation in individuals with a diagnosis of psychotic disorders. This paper utilises an Acceptance and Commitment Therapy approach to support personal reflection and reflexivity.

This paper presents a study of two lightweight steels, Fe-15Mn-10Al-0.8C-5Ni and Fe-15Mn-10Al-0.8C where strength is dependent upon the microstructure of 2nd phase precipitates. We investigate the effects of annealing temperature from 500 °C to 1050 °C on the precipitation of ordered phases size and morphology through phase-field modelling and experimental studies based on laboratory scale annealing and characterization. The chemical composition of carbides and B2 compounds as a function of isothermal annealing temperature and the matrix within which they formed are elucidated in this study. It is found that nano-sized disk-shaped B2 particles form at higher annealing temperatures (e.g. 900 °C and 1050 °C). The simulation results on carbides demonstrated the effects of energetic competition between interfacial energy and elastic strain energy on the morphological evolution of carbides. In addition to that, different ordering behaviours observed depending on the Ni content into the steel. The results demonstrate processing route designed through the phase-field simulations led to a better combination of strength and ductility. The tensile testing results indicate an increase in the strength and elongation when B2 precipitate morphology changes from micro-size faceted shape to nano-size disk-like particles.

This thesis consists of three papers, a literature review, an empirical paper and a reflective paper. The literature review explores the neuropsychological and neurocognitive correlates of psychopathy with a view to identify and appraise review papers together. Nine articles were identified and comprised studies of child/adolescent and adult, clinical and nonclinical samples. The review identifies evidence of different patterns of performance on inhibition, working memory, intelligence, emotion recognition and affective theory of mind (ToM). Results are considered in terms of neural correlates, clinical presentations and intervention options. Methodological limitations are discussed, both in terms of the included studies and of the literature review itself. Implications for policy and practice are outlines and directions for further research are highlighted.

The empirical paper investigates the construct of psychopathy and its measurement and relationship with the measures of empathy. Data from a nonclinical sample was collected using an online platform. Using a correlational design, relationships between psychopathy and empathy were investigated. Further analyses examined the different psychopathy subscales, differences in performance according to the emotional valence of the task stimuli and tentative explorations into gender differences. The results are discussed in relation to existing evidence and limitations of the research are highlighted.

Finally, the reflective paper comprised a discussion of conducting clinical research as part of clinical training. This includes critique of the term psychopathy and challenges in professional identity.

RATIONALE:
Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in sepsis and intensive therapy unit mortality but has not been assessed as a risk factor for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Causality of these associations has never been demonstrated.
OBJECTIVES:
To determine if ARDS is associated with vitamin D deficiency in a clinical setting and to determine if vitamin D deficiency in experimental models of ARDS influences its severity.
METHODS:
Human, murine and in vitro primary alveolar epithelial cell work were included in this study.
FINDINGS:
Vitamin D deficiency (plasma 25(OH)D levels <50 nmol/L) was ubiquitous in patients with ARDS and present in the vast majority of patients at risk of developing ARDS following oesophagectomy. In a murine model of intratracheal lipopolysaccharide challenge, dietary-induced vitamin D deficiency resulted in exaggerated alveolar inflammation, epithelial damage and hypoxia. In vitro, vitamin D has trophic effects on primary human alveolar epithelial cells affecting >600 genes. In a clinical setting, pharmacological repletion of vitamin D prior to oesophagectomy reduced the observed changes of in vivo measurements of alveolar capillary damage seen in deficient patients.
CONCLUSIONS:
Vitamin D deficiency is common in people who develop ARDS. This deficiency of vitamin D appears to contribute to the development of the condition, and approaches to correct vitamin D deficiency in patients at risk of ARDS should be developed.
TRIAL REGISTRATION:
UKCRN ID 11994

This article shines a light on a less examined aspect of sustainable energy transitions: governing for demand side innovations in Germany. Demand innovations are considered to be central to affordable, efficient and politically acceptable energy system transformations, however many argue that not enough is being done in governance terms. In a departure from much analysis on demand policy demand innovations are defined broadly here to explicitly include demand side response, demand reduction and distributed energy – given that each has important roles to play within demand-oriented markets. Demand governance is conceptualised as a long-term political process that is both contextually specific but also open to challenge and change at various points in time. The single case study is Germany where demand governance, recent changes in energy markets, and implications for how the politics of energy are changing are all analysed. This paper reveals the specific ways in which critical policy debates emerge over time and influence political decision-making; the ways in which these debates relate to changes in energy markets; as well as a lack of governance in relation to enabling demand side response and local energy markets.

A two-types, discrete-time population model with finite, constant size is constructed, allowing for a general form of frequency-dependent selection and skewed offspring distribution. Selection is defined based on the idea that individuals first choose a (random) number of \emph{potential} parents from the previous generation and then, from the selected pool, they inherit the type of the fittest parent. The probability distribution function of the number of potential parents per individual thus parametrises entirely the selection mechanism. Using sampling- and moment-duality, weak convergence is then proved both for the allele frequency process of the selectively weak type and for the population's ancestral process. The scaling limits are, respectively, a two-types $\Xi$-Fleming-Viot jump-diffusion process with frequency-dependent selection, and a branching-coalescing process with general branching and simultaneous multiple collisions. Duality also leads to a characterisation of the probability of extinction of the selectively weak allele, in terms of the ancestral process' ergodic properties.

NHS England report that the ambulance services attempt to resuscitate approximately 28 000 people from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest each year (approximately 1 per 2000 inhabitants per year).1 The rate of initial success (return of spontaneous circulation) was 25%, with less than half of those who are successfully resuscitated initially surviving to go home from hospital (survival to discharge 7%–8%, 2011–2014).1 (see figure 1). The survival rates contrast sharply with those observed in the best-performing emergency medical services systems, which have survival rates of 20%–25%.2–4 In 2013, the government's Cardiovascular Disease Outcomes Strategy for England set the ambitious, but achievable target of increasing survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest by 50%, leading to an additional 1000 lives saved each year.

As a greenhouse gas, carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is one of the key contributors to climate change. Many strategies have been proposed to address this issue, such as CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) and CO2 utilization (CCU). Electroreduction of CO2 into useful fuels is proving to be a promising technology as it not only consumes CO2 but can also store the redundant electrical energy generated from renewable energy sources (e.g., solar, wind, geothermal, wave, etc.) as chemical energy in the produced chemicals. Among all of products from CO2 electroconversion, formic acid is one of the highest value-added chemicals, which is economically feasible for large-scale applications. This paper summarizes the work on inorganic cathode catalysts for the electrochemical reduction of CO2 to formic acid or formate. The reported metal and oxide cathode catalysts are discussed in detail according to their performance including current density, Faradaic efficiency, and working potentials. In addition, the effects of electrolyte, temperature, and pressure are also analyzed. The electroreduction of CO2 to formic acid or formate is still at an early stage with several key challenges that need to be addressed before commercialization. The major challenges and the future directions for developing new electrocatalysts for the reduction of CO2 to formic acid are discussed in this review.

This thesis examines the dialogue genre in seventeenth-century England. In 1681 when Henry Care established his periodical The Popish Courant he chose the format of a dialogue because people were 'so set upon dialoging.' Care's choice of dialogue for his periodical is indicative of the popularity of dialogue in the seventeenth century. Yet, despite the popularity that dialogue enjoyed in this period it has not received comparative attention by scholars. This thesis seeks to address this gap and make two specific historiographical contributions. Firstly, it demonstrates how the digitization of early modern sources can enable scholars to approach literary history from perspectives that physical books prevent. Using the digital collections of Early English Books Online, British Periodicals Online, and Eighteenth Century Collections Online for its source material this thesis has used a database of dialogues to analyze the genre and provide contextual knowledge about the genre as a whole that can illuminate the rhetorical objectives behind specific uses of dialogue. This is particularly exposed in the final chapter that utilizes this contextual information to understand the appeal of dialogue in Roger L'Estrange's Observator.

Secondly this thesis adds to the growing number of studies of early modern genres such as pamphlets, newspapers, ballads, and chapbooks. The period under discussion was one of significant change in terms of political and social circumstances and this thesis demonstrates that dialogue was sensitive to these political events. By situating the dialogue within the broader print landscape of seventeenth-century England the thesis maps how dialogue adapted to changing circumstances with pamphlet dialogues, periodical dialogues, and dialogues of the dead, in particular emerging in response to social and political events. Looking at the dialogue in the context of other literary forms this thesis argues that the appeal of dialogue was its flexibility and ability to educate a broad range of people across all demographics of seventeenth-century England.

The homologous transcriptional regulators ScbR and ScbR2 have previously been identified as γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and antibiotic receptors, respectively. They regulate diverse physiological processes in Streptomyces coelicolor in response to GBL and antibiotic signals. In this study, ScbR and ScbR2 proteins were shown to interact using a bacterial two-hybrid system where adenylate cyclase activity was reconstituted in Escherichia coli BH101. These ScbR/ScbR2 interactions in S. coelicolor were then demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. The ScbR/ScbR2 heterodimer was shown to co-exist with their ScbR and ScbR2 respective homodimers. When potential operator targets in S. coelicolor were investigated, the heterodimer was found to bind in the promoter region of sco5158, which however was not a target for ScbR or ScbR2 homodimers. These results revelaed a new mechanism
25 of regulation by ScbR and ScbR2 in S. coelicolor.

This paper examined the emotional impact that engaging in or witnessing Symbolic Taboo Activities (STAs), as represented in MMORPGs (massively multiplayer online role-playing game), such as killing, torture and rape, has on adults. We focused our study on two games: World of Warcraft and Sociolotron. The study employed Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), which was chosen because of its emphasis on 'lived experienced' and how participants make sense of their experiences. Five participants, all over the age of 18 years, were interviewed via Instant Messenger, four of which were men. Most of our participants felt they could easily separate gamespace from the real world; however, when asked to examine specific actions in-depth, we found this was not the case for all STAs. Activities that did not have a sanctioned equivalence (e.g., rape) were found by most to be more difficult to separate, especially emotionally. However, this was not the case for all participants. The findings suggest that not all individuals can psychologically cope with engaging in and/or witnessing certain STAs in MMORPGs. The results, we believe are important for game designers, censoring bodies of video games and psychologists.

Malaria is an infectious tropical disease responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths every year. It is caused by a parasite from genus Plasmodium of which falciparum is the most deadly and the focus of this study. The limited number of currently available drugs are further threatened by the rising frequency of resistance. This has greatly emphasised the need for new drugs with novel modes of action. The current drug development pipelines rely on large scale compound library screens for antimalarial effect. Computational chemometric methods are then used for selecting promising hits for further investigation. Such analyses however rely on indirect characterisation of compound effects. In this project we investigated three approaches aimed at developing compound screening assays based on compound effects on live cells. The first two approaches relied on metabolomics techniques. Based on the assumption that the drug-induced metabolic changes in the malaria parasite could be uniquely assigned to the drug mode of action we hypothesised that if such metabolic states could be measured they could be used to cluster the compounds into groups based on their modes of action. By comparison to well-established antimalarials the clusters of novel compounds could then be characterised and novel compound clusters identified. The third method relied on the phenotypic information for drug exposed malaria parasites derived from the analysis of fluorescent microscopy images. This assay aimed at characterising the modes of action of the compounds as well as the speed of kill. The first method investigated was based on metabolic fingerprinting using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The sample preparation and data acquisition protocols were developed and tested. The results suggested that the sensitivity of the technique was insufficient for the detection of drug induced effects in P. falciparum. Next a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based method was developed. While the method was promising in terms of high throughput capabilities, consistency and the breadth of information posed a series of issues, mainly associated with sensitivity. In the absence of a suitable automated data processing solution a custom software "ProcNMR" was developed and used to process the data collected in the experiments. A full experimental procedure was developed and tested, however the NMR sensitivity issues, exacerbated by the complex intraerythrocytic nature of P. falciparum resulted in suboptimal outputs. Lastly a high content imaging-based technique was investigated. Data processing and predictive analysis methods were developed and implemented. A pilot experiment was used to demonstrate the potential of the technique to discriminate between fast and slow acting drugs. The compounds of the "Malaria Box" were screened using this technique and a group of fast acting compounds identified.

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