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WRAP: Warwick Research Archive Portal: No conditions. Results ordered -Date Deposited.

The right to coerce an employee is seen as advantageous to employers. However, if coercion gives employers a bad reputation, workers may be harder to recruit. We study a unique setting in Assam's tea plantations in the 19th century, where migrant workers were recruited under two different indentured contracts, one of which was more coercive, and gained notoriety in the national press and policy circles. Using newly collected panel data on annual migration flows to seven districts over the period 1883–1900, we find that the response of migration to increased demand for labor, proxied by a rising tea price, was lower for the contract that had a bad reputation. Workers migrated under the more coercive contract only when uninformed or misled about the terms of their employment. We identify the effect of information flow by distinguishing between recruiters with and without social connections with the workers.

This study of the use of therapeutic monitoring of tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) inhibitors in the management of Crohn's disease concluded that more evidence is required to tell us how the tests and the treatment options determined by the test results can benefit the management of patients.

Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) magnetic field sensors are compact, low power, high sensitivity devices that are low cost and have very simple supporting electronics. One of the disadvantages of GMR sensors can be their nonlinearity, hysteresis, and temperature-dependent output, which can reduce measurement accuracy. This paper presents an approach to improve the measurement accuracy of GMR sensors using a closed-loop circuit, which includes the sensor, a biasing coil, and a feedback circuit. The current in the biasing coil is actively changed to ensure that the component of magnetic field along the sensitive axis of the device is held constant, so that as the external magnetic field or orientation of the GMR sensor changes, the output of GMR sensor remains stable. In this way, the external magnetic field component along the sensitive axis of the device can be calculated by measuring the current in the biasing coil surrounding the GMR sensor, regardless of the hysteresis and nonlinearly of GMR sensor. The linearity and the accuracy of magnetic field measurements using a GMR sensor are significantly improved and a hardware prototype has been constructed and tested under a reference magnetic field.

Campylobacter jejuni is the leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, with C. coli and other species in the genus also increasingly associated with human disease. The extensive animal host and environmental distribution of this infection contributes to the complexity of understanding the sources of human infection and Campylobacter population biology. Questions to which genomic analysis are likely to make early contributions include the basic epidemiology and ecology of this infection, the attribution of human infection to source, and the detection of outbreaks as well as specific features such as virulence determinants. The extensive application of population genetic analysis of partial multilocus genome sequences and some preliminary work with whole genome sequence data support the predicted usefulness of whole genome sequencing for these applications. Extensive sampling across human, food, animal and environmental populations of Campylobacter is needed to allow the effective integration of genomics in the effective study of this pathogen.

Conventional cooling approaches that target either a singular tab or outer surface of common format cylindrical lithium-ion battery cells suffer from a high cell thermal resistance. Under an aggressive duty cycle, this resistance can result in the formation of large in-cell temperature gradients and high hot spot temperatures, which are known to accelerate ageing and further reduce performance. In this paper, a novel approach to internal thermal management of cylindrical battery cells to lower the thermal resistance for heat transport through the inside of the cell is investigated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is analysed for two common cylindrical formats when subject to highly aggressive electrical loading conditions representative of a high performance electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV). A mathematical model that captures the dominant thermal properties of the cylindrical cell is created and validated using experimental data. Results from the extensive simulation study indicate that the internal cooling strategy can reduce the cell thermal resistance by up to 67.8 ± 1.4% relative to single tab cooling, and can emulate the performance of a more complex pack-level double tab cooling approach whilst targeting cooling at a single tab.

Traditionally, informed consent for clinical research involves the patient reading an approved Participant Information Sheet, considering the information presented and having as much time as they need to discuss the study information with their friends and relatives, their clinical care and the research teams. This system works well in the 'planned' or 'elective' setting. But what happens if the patient requires urgent treatment for an injury or emergency?

This article reviews the legal framework which governs informed consent in the emergency setting, discusses how the approach taken may vary according to the details of the emergency and the treatment required, and reports on the patients' view of providing consent following a serious injury. We then provide some practical tips for managing the process of informed consent in the context of injuries and emergencies.

The celebrated theorem of Robertson and Seymour states that in the family of minor-closed graph classes, there is a unique minimal class of graphs of unbounded tree-width, namely, the class of planar graphs. In the case of tree-width, the restriction to minor-closed classes is justified by the fact that the tree-width of a graph is never smaller than the tree-width of any of its minors. This, however, is not the case with respect to clique-width, as the clique-width of a graph can be (much) smaller than the clique-width of its minor. On the other hand, the clique-width of a graph is never smaller than the clique-width of any of its induced subgraphs, which allows us to be restricted to hereditary classes (that is, classes closed under taking induced subgraphs), when we study clique-width. Up to date, only finitely many minimal hereditary classes of graphs of unbounded clique-width have been discovered in the literature. In the present paper, we prove that the family of such classes is infinite. Moreover, we show that the same is true with respect to linear clique-width.

A stable and accurate new method for the measurement of the velocity of sound is proposed. The method is based on the characteristics of the frequency response measured at different positions in an impedance tube and it eliminates adverse effects caused by reflections from the transmitting transducer at the bottom of the impedance tube. A series of experiments is conducted, at different water temperatures, different positions in the impedance tube and under constant pressure, to validate the feasibility and stability of the new method. The new technique is also extended to hydrostatic pressure conditions with stable sound velocity. Our method generates an accurate measurement result in comparison to the estimated or average value obtained with currently existing methods. The novel method is suitable to be widely used in underwater acoustics.

In February 2012, the novel respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) group A, genotype ON1, was detected in Kilifi County, coastal Kenya. ON1 is characterized by a 72-nt duplication within the highly variable G gene (encoding the immunogenic attachment surface protein). Cases were diagnosed through surveillance of pneumonia in children at the county hospital. Analysis of epidemiologic, clinical, and sequence data of RSV-A viruses detected over 5 RSV seasons (2010/2011 to 2014/2015) indicated the following: 1) replacement of previously circulating genotype GA2 by ON1, 2) an abrupt expansion in the number of ON1 variants detected in the 2014/2015 epidemic, 3) recent accumulation of amino acid substitutions within the ON1 duplicated sequence, and 4) no clear evidence of altered pathogenicity relative to GA2. The study demonstrates the public health importance of molecular surveillance in defining the spread, clinical effects, and evolution of novel respiratory virus variants.

This paper presents the results of a user study which quantifies the relative and absolute quality of example-based texture synthesis algorithms. In order to allow such evaluation, a list of texture properties is compiled, and a minimal representative set of textures is selected to cover these. Six texture synthesis methods are compared against each other and a reference on a selection of twelve textures by non-expert participants (N = 67). Results demonstrate certain algorithms successfully solve the problem of texture synthesis for certain textures, but there are no satisfactory results for other types of texture properties. The presented textures and results make it possible for future work to be subjectively compared, thus facilitating the development of future texture synthesis methods.

We study many-body interaction effects in the spatially-resolved filling factor ($\nu$) distribution for higher Landau levels (LLs) via self-consistent Hartree-Fock simulations in the integer quantum Hall (IQH) regime. Our results indicate a strong, interaction-induced tendency to avoid the simultaneous existence of partially filled spin-up and spin-down LLs. Rather, we find that such partially filled LLs consist of coexisting regions of full and empty LLs. At the boundaries between the regions of full and empty LLs, we observe edge stripes of nearly constant $\nu$ close to \emph{half filling}. This suggests that the exchange interaction induces a behavior similar to a Hund's rule for the occupation of the spin split LLs. The screening of the disorder and edge potential appears significantly reduced as compared to static Thomas-Fermi screening. Our results are consistent with a local, lateral $\nu$ dependence of the exchange-enhanced spin splitting. Hence, on quantum-coherent length scales as probed here, the electron system of the IQH effect behaves similar to a non-interacting single particle system --- not because of the absence, but rather due to the dominance of many-body effects.

We apply the capillary wave method, based on measurements of fluctuations in a ribbon-like interfacial geometry, to determine the solid–liquid interfacial free energy for both polytypes of ice I and the recently proposed ice 0 within a mono-atomic model of water. We discuss various choices for the molecular order parameter, which distinguishes solid from liquid, and demonstrate the influence of this choice on the interfacial stiffness. We quantify the influence of discretisation error when sampling the interfacial profile and the limits on accuracy imposed by the assumption of quasi one-dimensional geometry. The interfacial free energies of the two ice I polytypes are indistinguishable to within achievable statistical error and the small ambiguity which arises from the choice of order parameter. In the case of ice 0, we find that the large surface unit cell for low index interfaces constrains the width of the interfacial ribbon such that the accuracy of results is reduced. Nevertheless, we establish that the interfacial free energy of ice 0 at its melting temperature is similar to that of ice I under the same conditions. The rationality of a core–shell model for the nucleation of ice I within ice 0 is questioned within the context of our results.

Renal tubular sodium (Na) handling plays a key role in blood pressure (BP) regulation. Several cross-sectional studies reported a positive association between higher proximal tubule fractional reabsorption of Na and BP, but no prospective investigation has been reported of this possible association. Hence, the purpose of this study was to estimate the predictive role of renal Na handling on the risk of incident hypertension and the changes in BP occurring in the 8-year follow-up observation of a sample of initially normotensive men (The Olivetti Heart Study). The study included 294 untreated normotensive non-diabetic men with normal renal function examined twice (1994–95 and 2002–04). Renal tubular Na handling was estimated by exogenous lithium clearance. Fractional reabsorption of Na in proximal and distal tubules was calculated and included in the analysis. At baseline, there was no association between BP and either proximal or distal fractional reabsorption of Na. At the end of the 8-year follow-up, direct associations were observed between baseline proximal (but not distal) Na fractional reabsorption and the changes occurred in systolic and diastolic BP over time (+2.79 and +1.53 mmHg, respectively, per 1SD difference in proximal Na-FR; p<0.01). Also multivariable analysis showed a direct association between baseline proximal Na fractional reabsorption and risk of incident hypertension, independently of potential confounders (OR: 1.34, 95%CI:1.06–1.70). The results of this prospective investigation strongly suggest a causal relationship between an enhanced rate of Na reabsorption in the proximal tubule and the risk of incident hypertension in initially normotensive men.

Examines current trends and challenges for policymakers in the UK skills system. Explains that this review was commissioned as part of Foresight's future of skills and lifelong learning project (see further reports at B47282-3 and B47825). Outlines the changing demand for skills. Considers gaps in provision, skills shortages, the skills equilibrium and geographical gaps. Looks at access by individuals to skills and training. Considers the role of migration in addressing skills shortfalls. Looks at the role of careers information and guidance in addressing skills gaps.

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