The substantial increase in powerful electronic systems and functions has produced significant implications for the vehicular industry, where the amount of wiring infrastructure has increased the vehicle weight, weakened performance, and made adherence to reliability standards difficult. Eventually, connecting the electronics infrastructure was mostly complicated and costly in vehicular domain systems. Thus, little research has been conducted to explore appropriate wireless technologies that may be suitable with the emerging network standard within the context of vehicular networks.
This thesis describes an in-depth investigation of deploying an optical wireless communication system within the vehicular environment, particularly in confined spaces. A wide variety of measurements has been performed using tubes of various materials and geometries, in a laboratory setup. The principle objective is to provide a primary knowledge of optical wireless channel characterization within a laboratory vehicular setting. The work presented is a study on directed line-of-sight (LOS) and non-LOS (NLOS) links, and focuses on frequency response, power efficiencies, and path losses in different experimental settings. Further, a variety of experimental settings was used in respect to different receiver/transmitter orientations and various bent tubes angles in order to investigate the channel conditions. The noise analysis, xviii SNR, path loss and the eye pattern for the digital system prototype designed were also analysed.
The system requirement for the LOS link were based on the transmission of the sinusoidal signal at a distance of 1 m with 13 MHz signal and approximately 15.6 dB SNR. Successful demonstration of the OWC within smaller size and high reflection coefficient material are promising. In addition to good transmitter and high sensitivity receiver.
The NLOS link also demonstrated a good indication, both in straight tube with angled transmitter/receiver orientation and bend tubes. Detail studies on NLOS link with pulse signal transmission, which replicates a digital system transmission with 54.48mW or 44.58 mW/cm2 output power,6 MHz signal transmission with the aim of 10-4 to 10-6 BER. Although, the operational functionality of digital system has successfully demonstrated, however achieving the desired BER is a bit difficult with the designed system. Further improvement on the highly sensitive receiver design, a proper modulation scheme is required in order to improve the quality of the transmitted signal in terms of SNR and BER.
The study also suggested that the transmission within the metal tubes is better than in plastic tubes in addition to minimum bend angle, smaller tube diameter and high reflective coefficient. Transmission within 20 mm circular aluminium tube and 35 mm galvanised aluminium tube are the best so far.
Finally, based on the initial viability results, it was seen that it is possible to implement an optical wireless communication infrastructure within the vehicular environment. Experimental validation of the system proposed shows that achieving high data rates is not a problem with the use of high brightness, high power LEDs as this system is xix going to be implemented within the vehicle chassis, thus the eye safety constraints should not be a limiting factor. Therefore, in this study, optical wireless transmission within the vehicular environment is proposed, solving the problems of vehicular networking systems.
Quest religious orientation among church leaders signifies a style of leadership committed to religious explorations more than to religious certainties. This study sets out to explore the extent to which quest religious orientation among religious leaders is a function of psychological predisposition (conceptualized in terms of psychological type theory) or a function of distinctive forms of religious experience (conceptualized in terms of Happold's model of mysticism) among a sample of 1,265 church leaders who participated in the 2011 Australian National Church Life Survey. The data demonstrated that higher levels of mystical orientation were associated with psychological predisposition, involving extraversion, intuition, feeling and perceiving. After controlling for sex, age, education, denominational groups and psychological type, higher levels of mystical orientation were also associated with higher levels of quest religious orientation. Mystical orientation partly mediated the effect of intuition on question orientation, but psychological preferences (for intuition and for perceiving) and mystical orientation seemed independently to promote quest religious orientation. Thus, church leaders committed to religious explorations rather than to religious certainties seemed to have been shaped both by psychological predisposition and by distinctive forms of religious experience.
Standards are central to many information technology (IT) applications, and the development processes for these standards play a key role in the evolution of information systems (IS). We model the development of IT standards by technology suppliers as a coevolutionary technological search process under supply-side network effects, and we examine how the characteristics of the standards development process influence its outcomes. In line with common intuition and prior research, we find that perfect coordination among suppliers generally facilitates convergence on the best available standard. However, for complex IT standards, we make a novel contribution and find that this "best available" standard may be inferior to alternative, undiscovered solutions because coordination may lead to an overly narrow search. Consistent with prior research, we also find that either highly influential organizations or highly influential alliances and consortia can coordinate standard selection in order to prevent network effects from generating lock-in to an inferior option and to help set the best of the known alternatives as the standard. However, in contrast to the previous literature, we find that when coordination is imperfect and controlled by a moderately influential organization or consortium, it may lead to a technological lock-in dynamic in which suppliers adhere to an inferior solution and are subsequently unable to reverse this commitment, even when a technologically superior alternative emerges later in the search process. Further, we reveal the following paradox involving intellectual property rights (IPR) and related imitation costs: Although imitation costs can lead to the emergence of multiple standards, thereby reducing social welfare in the short term, this effect may have long-term benefits by broadening the search for future generations of a standard.
We investigate Bayesian non-parametric inference of the Λ-measure of Λ-coalescent processes with recurrent mutation, parametrised by probability measures on the unit interval. We give verifiable criteria, given an identifiability assumption, on the prior for posterior consistency when observations form a time series, and prove that any non-trivial prior is inconsistent when all observations are contemporaneous. We then show that the likelihood given a data set of size n ∈ N is constant across Λ-measures whose leading n − 2 moments agree, and focus on inferring truncated sequences of moments. We provide a large class of functionals which can be extremised using finite computation given a credible region of posterior truncated moment sequences, and a pseudo-marginal Metropolis-Hastings algorithm for sampling the posterior. Finally, we compare the efficiency of the exact and noisy pseudo-marginal algorithms with and without delayed acceptance acceleration using a simulation study.
This thesis explores representations of the child in contemporary literature, culture, and criticism. The authors and texts considered are primarily British and post-1979, but the thesis situates them within the context of post-war cultural history, and particularly in relation to changes to perceptions of the 'post-war' itself in the 1980s. From these texts, representations of the child that dramatise the child's entrance into authority as a problem for the adult, one characterised by symbolic or actual violence, ground a case that the child is required to correlate with a recognisable image of himself, one that actually limits his political potential, as the condition for his political or aesthetic representation. Violence against the child is the all-pervasive threat for failure to meet this condition.
Reading these depictions of violence towards the child, notably by Alan Hollinghurst, Ian McEwan, Peter Ackroyd, and Kazuo Ishiguro, this thesis builds upon existing critical work on the child as a current and continuing problem for authority. The theoretical framework derives from cultural history, from the political theory of Hannah Arendt, and from psychoanalysis, particularly as mediated through contemporary Queer Studies. This range positions literary authors as sometimes mediating between psychoanalytic understandings of the child and the political use of the child as representation of the future, a connection already central to the work of seminal contemporary theorists such as Lee Edelman.
The thesis argues that we face a historically specific and psychoanalytically resonant problem of the child and authority: a problem demanding attention to the way we read the child, and with broader implications for reading as the practice of literary analysis and interpretation (one with, as we shall find, a complicated relation to how political authorities require particular 'readings' of the child). Several texts discussed here constitute not only uncanny versions of cultural history, but also interventions against their own reading. These dramatise and resist a pronounced tendency to demand that the child becomes available for recognition, as the condition for its political and aesthetic representation, with violence ensuing for the child who refuses to meet this condition.
This article examines the issues that arise when interviewing subjects experienced in recounting their own histories. Brian Harrison has called such interviewees 'professional recollectors', and the article focuses on a single interview conducted with Glaswegian twin brothers John and Peter Douglas, both of whom had careers as cinema projectionists. The interview demonstrates some of the ways in which memory is structured into a 'performance', and the implications that this has for oral historians. Although the anecdotal aspects of the interview (and others like it) offer a highly constructed and rehearsed set of narratives, the article concludes that they are nevertheless useful historical sources because the anecdotal 'set-ups' frequently involve detailed accounts of the working life of the projectionists.
Second languages (L2s) are often learned through spoken and written input, and L2 orthographic forms (spellings) can lead to non-native-like pronunciation. The present study investigated whether orthography can lead experienced learners of EnglishL2 to make a phonological contrast in their speech production that does not exist in English. Double consonants represent geminate (long) consonants in Italian but not in English. In Experiment 1, native English speakers and EnglishL2 speakers (Italians) were asked to read aloud English words spelled with a single or double target consonant letter, and consonant duration was compared. The EnglishL2 speakers produced the same consonant as shorter when it was spelled with a single letter, and longer when spelled with a double letter. Spelling did not affect consonant duration in native English speakers. In Experiment 2, effects of orthographic input were investigated by comparing two groups of EnglishL2 speakers (Italians) performing a delayed word repetition task with or without orthographic input; the same orthographic effects were found in both groups. These results provide arguably the first evidence that L2 orthographic forms can lead experienced L2 speakers to make a contrast in their L2 production that does not exist in the language. The effect arises because L2 speakers are affected by the interaction between the L2 orthographic form (number of letters), and their native orthography– phonology mappings, whereby double consonant letters represent geminate consonants. These results have important implications for future studies investigating the effects of orthography on native phonology and for L2 phonological development models.
This report aims to improve understanding of the true cost of inadequate housing to EU Member States and to suggest policy initiatives that might help address its social and financial consequences. The full impact of poor housing tends to be evident only in the longer term, and the savings to publicly funded services, the economy and society that investment in good quality accommodation can deliver are not always obvious. While housing policies are the prerogative of national governments, many Member States face similar challenges in this field. In some, projects to improve inadequate housing have already provided valuable practical experience that can usefully be shared, and this report presents eight such case studies. While improving poor living conditions would be costly, the report suggests the outlay could be recouped quite quickly from savings on healthcare and a range of publicly funded services – in the EU as a whole, for every €3 invested in improving housing conditions, €2 would come back in savings in one year. An executive summary is available - see Related content.
This assessment protocol has been produced by the Building Research Establishment during the course of a research project on behalf of the BRE Trust in collaboration with the BRE Centre for Resilience. It provide a process to be used to determine the seriousness of a potential threat to health from exposure to high temperatures within a dwelling. It should be read in conjunction with the guidance document on excess heat, which defines excess heat, its causes and potential preventative measures.
This guidance document has been produced by the Building Research Establishment during the course of a research project on behalf of the BRE Trust in collaboration with the BRE Centre for Resilience. It
defines the characteristics of excess heat, considers the potential for harm arising from excess heat and the associated health impacts. It also identifies the causes of excess heat and potential preventative measures.
An accompanying assessment protocol is available in order to provide a process to be used to determine the seriousness of a potential threat to health from exposure to high temperatures within a dwelling.
This study employs a philosophical mode of interpretation in examining an approach to personal formation within a group setting. It argues that notions of finitude, mortality, death, inauthentic discourse and resoluteness are crucial in turning group members towards understanding the roots of their being. Immersion within this process is deemed formative and transformative in itself, especially when awareness of inauthentic modes of engagement is raised and practised. The purpose of this study is to encourage mindfulness of neglected issues ('who' it is being called, who it is being formed, for example) and demonstrates, through an exemplar, how turning towards these may bring about personal change within a group setting.
This article discusses policy developments in the arts and local government since the publication of the original article on this topic. It assesses the continued relevance of the thinking behind policy attachment in the original article for understanding and explaining policy in this sector, and indicates the direction in which the concept of policy attachment could be developed in both analytical and empirical ways.
With the emergence of big data and new data sources, a challenge posed to today's organizations consists of identifying how to align their decision-making and organizational processes to data that could help them make better-informed decisions. This paper presents a study in the context of disaster management in Brazil that applies oDMN +, a framework that connects decision-making with data sources through an extended modeling notation and a modeling process. The study results revealed that the framework is an effective approach for improving the understanding of how to leverage big data in the organization's decision-making.
This paper addresses some of the challenges of delineating race as a conceptual problem in higher education (HE) classrooms. It takes a counter-intuitive position: at least, for someone like me, a black academic who has taught around race equality issues on and off for almost twenty years in further and higher education. It queries the pedagogic comfort zone in which race is explicated as a social construct on the grounds that the 'social construct' position, which I take to be correct in general, carries with it a tendency to depict race as a form of false consciousness destined for the dustbin of ideological illusions. This paper is concerned with how to focus in classrooms on race as a central social practice: something central to the social and political formation, not something that happens 'elsewhere' and 'to other people'. This is not to assume that race is the master factor in lived experience but rather to emphasise its non-aberrant, everyday quality. This paper reflects on ways in which the problem of race is routinely opened up or shut down in classroom explorations.