How much changed under the Republic?
How “modern” was the Republic 1889-1914?
What was the view of ordinary people?
What was the role of coffee, economically and politically?
What was the balance between the regions? What did Brazil’s regions look like by 1914?
What does Adolfo Ferreira Caminha’s life tell us about how ordinary people in the navy and army experienced the early Republic?
•Meade, Teresa. Civilizing Rio: Reform and Resistance in a Brazilian City, 1889-1930, Chapter 3, “Sanitation and Renovation;” Chapter 4, “The Resistance,” pp 103-120
•Peter M Beattie, “Adolfo Ferreira Caminha,” in Beattie (ed), The Human Tradition, pp 89-106
•Bethell (ed), Empire & Republic, Chapter 5 (“Economy”)
José Murilo de Carvalho, “Brazil 1870-1914: The Force of Tradition,” Journal of Latin American Studies, 24 (1992, special quincentenary supplement)