• How did Brazil look different demographically, politically, and culturally by 1930? with what significance?
* What was Euclides da Cunha's view of ordinary rural Brazilians at the turn of the century?
* How did Tarsila do Amaral and the modernists begin re-thinking Brazilian national culture and identity in the 1920s?
• Why did Vargas come to power in 1930?
• Was the collapse of the Republic inevitable?
Bethell (ed), Empire & Republic, chapter 6 (“Society and Politics”), 145-62
Dain Borges, “A Mirror of Progress,” in Levine & Crocitti (eds) The Brazil Reader pp 93-99
Carol Damian and Cristina Mehrtens, “Tarsila and the 1920s,” in The Brazil Reader, pp 308-18
Luís Carlos Prestes, “Manifesto,” in The Brazil Reader, pp 158-9