• Why did Brazil become independent in 1822?
• Which groups contributed?
• Did the independence process look different from different regions of the country or from the “top down” versus the “bottom up”? Why/ how?
• How much changed after 1822?
•Skidmore, Brazil, first half of chapter 3
•da Costa, chapter 2, “José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva: A Founding Father,” pp 24-52, and chapter 3, “Liberalism: Theory and Practice,” pp. 53-77 (on library scans page)
•Hendrik Kray, “Daniel Gomes de Freitas,” in Beattie (ed.), The Human Tradition pp 5-22 [e-book and several copies at Library]