- In what ways did religion affect the lives of European people?
- How was the Church in Western Europe organised, and what was the role and significance of the papacy?
- 'The threat to the authority of the Church around 1500 came from too much lay piety, rather than too little'. Discuss.
- How successful was Christian humanism as a reform movement?
**NOTE: Some eresources are accessible only on-campus or via off-campus proxies or the athens service**
The English Parish Church Through the Centuries, ed. Dee Dyas (Christianity and Culture, 2010), section 'Later Middle Ages': featuring relevant texts, images, audio and videos
- BBC Radio 4 'In Our Time' discussion on Erasmus
- 'O pastor animarum' (plainchant) by Hildegard von Bingen (d. 1179)
- Samples from a sung mass by John Taverner (d. 1545), performed by 'The Sixteen'
- Samples of Tudor church music performed by the Tallis Scholars
- You can also search for suitable versions of the following pieces e.g. on https://www.youtube.com:
- John Browne, 'O Maria Salvatoris' (from the 15thC 'Eton Choir Book')
- Guillaume Dufay, 'Vasilissa ergo gaude' (isorhythmic motet for 4 voices)
- Stabat Mater, in mode 6 (Gregorian Chant)
- Ave Verum (Gregorian Chant)
- Nowel: 'Owt Of Your Slepe Aryse' (15th Century Carol)
Selected Key Texts
- E. Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England c.1400-c.1580 (1992; 2nd edn 2005) (ebook).
M. Aston, Faith and Fire: Popular and Unpopular Religion, 1350-1600 (1985), esp. chap. 6 (scan here)
- A. Brown, 'Civic religion in late medieval Europe', in: Journal of Medieval History 42, no. 3 (2016)
- J. Huizinga, The Waning of the Middle Ages (1972)
- Alister E. McGrath, Reformation Thought: An Introduction (fourth ed., Oxford, 2012) (ebook), esp. ch 2
- C.G. Nauert, Humanism and the Culture of Renaissance Europe (1995)
- A. Pettegree, (ed.), The Reformation World (2000), (ebook) esp. chs. 2, 3, 4
D.W. Baker, Divulging Utopia: Radical humanism in sixteenth-century England (1999) (ebook)
- W. A. Christian, Local Religion in sixteenth-century Spain (1981)
J. Dillenberger, Images and relics: theological perceptions and visual images in sixteenth-century Europe (1999) (ebook)
L. Duggan, 'The unresponsiveness of the late medieval Church: a reconsideration', Sixteenth Century Journal 9 (1978)
C. Harper-Bill, The Pre-Reformation Church in England (1989)
D. Hay, The Church in Italy in the Fifteenth Century (1977) (ebook)
R. Hutton, The Rise and Fall of Merry England (1994), chs 1-2
C.J. Litzenberger, The English Reformation and the Laity: Gloucestershire, 1540-1580 (1997) (ebook)
B. Moeller, ‘Religious life in Germany on the eve of the Reformation’, in G. Strauss (ed.), Pre-Reformation Germany (1972)
" Imperial Cities and the Reformation: Three Essays (1972/1982)
D.G. Newcombe, Henry VIII and the English Reformation (1995) (ebook)
F. Oakley, The Western Church in the Later Middle Ages (1979)
H.A. Oberman, ‘The Long Fifteenth Century: In Search of its Profile’, in T. A. Brady (ed.), Die deutsche Reformation zwischen Spätmittelalter und Früher Neuzeit (2001)
S. Ozment, The Age of Reform 1250-1550 (1980) (ebook) chs. 1-5
V. Reinburg, 'Liturgy and the laity in late medieval and Reformation France', Sixteenth Century Journal 23 (1992)
G. Rosser, ‘Parochial conformity and voluntary religion in late medieval England’, Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 1 (1991)
- " , The Art of Solidarity in the Middle Ages: Guilds in England 1250-1550 (2015)
- Rubin, M., and W. Simons, eds, The Cambridge History of Christianity. Volume 4 Christianity in Western Europe, c. 1100-1500 (Cambridge, 2009) (ebook)
- R. Scribner, 'Ritual and Popular Religion in Catholic Germany at the Time of the Reformation', in Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany (1987), pp. 17-47.
R.N. Swanson, Religion and Devotion in Europe c.1215-c.1515 (1995)
“ , Church and Society in Late Medieval England (1989)
L. Taylor, ‘Society and Piety’, in: Hsia, R. (ed.), A Companion to the Reformation World (2002) (ebook)
A.T. Thayer, Penitence, Preaching and the Coming of the Reformation (2002)
J.A.F. Thomson, Popes and Princes 1417-1517: Politics and Polity in the Late Medieval Church (1980)
- P. Wallace, The Long European Reformation (2003) (ebook), esp. chs 1-2.
- Primary Sources: - collection of sources relating to the Early Modern period and Reformation
- Wycliff New Testament - translation of John Wycliff's 1382 Bible
- Vulgate Bible - translation of the Latin Vulgate Bible
- British Library virtual books: see especially 'Masterpiece of the Renaissaince', 'Outstanding 15th-century church book', 'Lindisfarne Gospels', and 'Glimpses of Medieval Life'
- The Gutenberg Bible - copies of Johann Guternberg's Bible (c.1450)
- Christian Classics Ethereal Library - videos relating to Medieval Mass
- Gregorian Chants - YouTube video
- Danish Medieval Church Art
- English Medieval Church Art