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Example 2


INDUCTIVE OR DEDUCTIVE?

We can see that the paragraph moves from examples and support to the main idea which is found in the last sentence. This is an inductive style of writing:

In many poor regions, aid from rich donor countries like the U.S. has been pouring in for many years. Nevertheless, the lives of those who need help have not improved much at all. Uganda is a country like this. Despite decades of aid, people there remain hungry, and life continues to be unbearably hard for those who live in poverty. Aid simply does not get through to the poor in Uganda. Instead, local officials take a large share of the money that comes through public sector budgets. It is normal and almost expected that bags of food aid go missing. The missing food is then sold for profit in street markets. Aid agencies like Oxfam are monitoring the situation and have evidence of politicians stealing directly from aid money and setting up bank accounts overseas. Aid has the perverse effect that it creates more greed for money from the West among the ruling elites. They act out of self-interest. They do not work towards improving the lives of their own people. If a local resident wants to open a legal business in Uganda they might need to get licenses from 20 ministries and bribe many people. It can take years, and the government can still shut that business down without good reason. One of the main reasons why foreign aid does not help the poor is wide-scale, systemic corruption.


If we move the final sentence to the beginning of the paragraph, this represents a deductive style of writing:

One of the main reasons why foreign aid does not help the poor is wide-scale, systemic corruption. In many poor regions, aid from rich donor countries like the U.S. has been pouring in for many years. Nevertheless, the lives of those who need help have not improved much at all. Uganda is a country like this. Despite decades of aid, people there remain hungry, and life continues to be unbearably hard for those who live in poverty. Aid simply does not get through to the poor in Uganda. Instead, local officials take a large share of the money that comes through public sector budgets. It is normal and almost expected that bags of food aid go missing. The missing food is then sold for profit in street markets. Aid agencies like Oxfam are monitoring the situation and have evidence of politicians stealing directly from aid money and setting up bank accounts overseas. Aid has the perverse effect that it creates more greed for money from the West among the ruling elites. They act out of self-interest. They do not work towards improving the lives of their own people. If a local resident wants to open a legal business in Uganda they might need to get licenses from 20 ministries and bribe many people. It can take years, and the government can still shut that business down without good reason.