This section is intended to be used in conjunction with 'Race and Ethnicity' above. Asylum seekers, immigrants and refugees have been included as a separate grouping to reflect the volume of relevant material on this theme.
Although immigrants can be distinguished from asylum seekers and refugees in terms of their official status, they appear together in this section to reflect both the wording of relevant legislation, and the focus of existing research findings. Three working definitions follow:
- Migrants, to the Home Office report (2002) Migrants in the UK: their characteristics and labour market outcomes and impacts, are defined as all those who were born outside the UK.
- An asylum seeker is someone who is waiting for their application to be recognised as a refugee to be considered by the Government. Under international law, the word 'refugee' has a very precise meaning, as set out in the 1951 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (the 'Refugee Convention').
- In the Refugee Convention, a refugee is defined as someone who: has a well-founded fear of persecution for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group, or political opinion; is outside the country they belong to or normally reside in, and is unable or unwilling to return home for fear of persecution.
From here you can find some mainly web-based resources relating to this topic.
- Dr Michael A. Shields and Dr Stephen Wheatley Price (2003) The labour market outcomes and psychological well-being of ethnic minority migrants in Britain, Home Office Online Report 07/03
- The 'Integration: mapping the field' exercise involved a survey of British research on immigrants and refugees. Part One by Castles et al. (2002) outlined areas which have been researched and identify gaps in the research. Part Two by Fyvie et al. (2003) provides an extensive bibliography, acting as a comprehensive reference to relevant publications, resources, organisations and websites. Integration is a two way process with adaptation required from the host society as well as migrants who have concerns around the issues of identity, belonging, recognition and self-respect. Defining immigrants and refugees is problematic. Current terms do not reflect the diversity within communities. The legal definition of a refugee does not reflect current realities. Boundaries between economic migrants and refugees have become increasingly blurred.
- Castles, C., Korac, M., Vasta, E. and Vertovec, S. with the assistance of Katrin Hansing, Fiona Moore, Emma Newcombe, Lucy Rix, Soojin Yu (2002) Integration: mapping the field. Volume I: Report of a Project carried out by the University of Oxford Centre for Migration and policy Research and Refugee Studies Centre, contracted by the Home Office Immigration Research and Statistics Service (IRSS), Home Office Online Report 28/03.
- Fyvie, C., Ager, A., Curley, G. and Korac, M. (2003) Integration: mapping the field. Volume II - distilling policy lessons from the "mapping the field" exercise, Home Office Online Report 29/03.
- Refugee Council support materials (2011)
- Roberts, K. & Harris, J. (2002) Disabled People in Refugee and Asylum-seeking Communities, York: Joseph Rowntree Foundation. The presence of disabled people in refugee and asylum-seeking communities in Britain is frequently overlooked and information about their particular experiences is rarely available. The report provides data on the numbers and social characteristics of disabled people in refugee and asylum-seeking communities and interviews with disabled people and service providers on their experience. One key recommendation is a call for greater disability awareness and equality training for those working with refugee and asylum-seeking communities.
Work in this area has been taken forward by the Centre on Migration, Policy and Society (COMPAS), University of Oxford, which has set up The Migration Observatory, a multi-media platform providing user-friendly access to authoritative and independent analysis of data on migrants and migration issues in the UK, set in an international context. It has also produced a wide range of relevant material, including the following:
- Gidley, B., Jayaweera, H. (2010) 'An Evidence Base on Migration and Integration in London'.
- Spencer, S. (2008) Equality and diversity in jobs and services: City policies for migrants in Europe,
- Jayaweera, H., and B. Anderson (2008) 'Migrant workers and vulnerable employment: an analysis of existing data'. Report written for TUC Commission on Vulnerable Employment.
- Penninx R., D. Spencer and N. Van Hear (2008) 'Migration and Integration in Europe: The State of Research'.
- Vertovec, S. (2007) 'New Complexities of Cohension in Britatin: Super-diversity, Transnationalism and Civil-Integration', report written for the Commission on Integration and Cohesion (CIC).
- Spencer, S. and Cooper, B. (2007) 'Social integration of migrants in Europe, a literature review', report written for the OECD.
- Spencer, S. (Ed) (2006) 'Refugees and other new migrants: a review of the evidence on successful approaches to integration'. Report commissioned by the Home Office.
- Anderson, B., Martin Ruhs, Ben Rogaly, Sarah Spencer, 2006, 'Fair Enough? Central and East European migrants in low wage employment in the UK'. Report written for the Joseph Rowntree Foundation.
- Anderson, B. and B. Rogaly, 2005, 'Forced Labour and Migration', TUC: London.
- Roca iCaparà, N. (2011) Young adults of Latin American origin in London and Oxford: Identities, discrimination and social inclusion
- Wessendorf, S. (2011) Commonplace diversity and the ‘ethos of mixing’: Perceptions of difference in a London neighbourhood
- Pariyar, M. (2011) Cast(e) in Bone: The Perpetuation of Social Hierarchy among Nepalis in Britain
- Düvell, F. and Garapich, M. (2011) Polish Migration to the UK: Continuities and Discontinuities
- Hamaz, S. and Vasta, E. (2009) ‘To belong or not to belong': Is that the question?' Negotiating belonging in multi-ethnic London
- Vasta, E. (2009) The controllability of difference: social solidarity and immgrant integration.
- Xiang Biao (2008) A Ritual Economy of 'Talent': China and Overseas Chinese Professionals
- Matthews G. and Ruhs, M. (2007) Are you being served? Employer demand for migrant labour in the UK 's hospitality sector
- Wimmer, A. (2007) How (not) to think about ethnicity in immigrant societies: A boundary making perspective