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Occupations

49% of the workforce is in associate professional and technical roles and much of the growth in employment is driven by the expansion in these roles.

Advertising and design businesses experienced particular difficulty recruiting to graphic design roles (46% and 32% of businesses respectively), while cultural heritage organisations experienced difficulty with archaeologists and visitor relations roles.

Over the next seven years, the creative and cultural industries across the UK are expected to grow by a further 151,000 people in newly created jobs. 55% of all these jobs will be in ‘associated professional and technical roles’, those requiring specialist technical skills. Over the same period, employment in professional and associated and technical roles will increase at a faster rate than compared to the UK as a whole (26% compared to 15% respectively).

Sources: Sector Skills Agreement for the Creative and Cultural Industries 2010, Creative & Cultural Skills AACS LMI report 2010, Working Futures 2007-2017and UK Employment and Skills Almanac 2009

 

Occupational skills gaps

37% of all employers within the creative and cultural industry believe that skills gaps exist in their current workforce. Of the skills gaps that exist:

  • 27% of these gaps relate to ICT skills
  • 26% relate to a diverse pool of ‘other’ skills
  • 15% relate to marketing/advertising/PR skills
  • 13% relate to technical skills

46% of employers in advertising and 44% in design believe there are skills gaps in their current workforce. Only 26% of craft employers believe that skills gaps were present in their current workforce.

Skills gaps are the result of: the limited time available for training; lack of experience in the role; and limited budget for training.

There is a wide diversity of occupations within the industry that employers report as displaying skills gaps: 14% relate to management occupations, 11% to the specific occupation of graphic design and 10% in marketing. There are significant issues in the transferable and business related skill sets of the current workforce.

Skills gaps in administrative roles were stated as being present frequently in literature (25%), visual arts (14%), performing arts (13%) and cultural heritage (10%). The impact of skills gaps was reported:

  • 12% of respondents with skills gaps indicated that they were impacting on business development in advertising
  • A lack of digital skills are having a significant impact in design (12%) and advertising (8%)
  • Respondents from the visual arts stated that fundraising skills gaps were having a significant impact (12%)
  • In literature, finance and accounting (13%) and sales (13%) skills gaps impact significantly on productivity and performance

Source: Creative & Cultural Skills AACS LMI report 2010

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Occupational recruitment difficulties by industry

The most common occupations in craft are jeweller (13%), stone mason (11%) and administrator (10%). 18% of employers noted difficulties in recruiting jewellers, 13% recruiting glass makers and all 9% for stone masons, textile makers and printers.

In cultural heritage, the most common occupations are visitor relations (19%), archaeologist (12%) and curator (9%). Occupations that are particularly difficult in terms of recruitment are archaeologist (noted by 41% of employers), visitor relation positions (29%) and technicians (15%).

The most common occupations in design are graphic designer (28%), interior designer (12%) and administrator (8%). Occupations that are particularly difficult in terms of recruitment are graphic designer (noted by 32% of employers), ICT (31%) and retail/sales positions (17%).

In music, the most common occupations are musician (15%), retail/sales (14%) and management (12%). 20% of employers noted difficulties in recruiting production assistants and each noted by 15% of employers for sound engineers, public relations and agent positions.

The most common occupations in literature are editor (16%), copywriter (16%) and management (11%). 49% of employers noted particular difficulties in recruiting trainees.

In visual art, the most common occupations are artist (15%), management (11%) and retail/sales (11%). Occupations that are particularly difficult in terms of recruitment are ICT roles, acting roles, sculptors and conservators (each noted by 20% of employers).

The most common occupations in performing arts are management (13%), administrator (9%) and agent (9%). Occupations that are particularly difficult in terms of recruitment are administrator roles (noted by 18% of employers), technicians (14%) and teachers (13%).

Source: Sector Skills Agreement for the Creative and Cultural Industries 2010

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Salaries

62% of the people earn less than £20,000, whilst 1 in 10 earn more than £41,000

There is limited information on salaries for the different roles in the creative and cultural sector, with no set income for particular roles. For many roles in the sector, salary levels will differ greatly depending on work opportunities, reputation, experience and qualification. It is common for people working in the sector to earn their living from a combination of work.

The sector is characterised by high number of freelance workers; the rates for whom can vary widely. Freelance workers often negotiate fees based on the type of work and their experience and track record.

Source: Sector Skills Agreement for the Creative and Cultural Industries 2010

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Salary levels

Pay scales in the industries are variable, so the following only provides an indication of the wage structure of the current workforce.

Craft:

  • 4% earn more than £41,000 per year
  • 14% earn between £29,000 - £41,000
  • 27% earn between £20,000 - £29,000
  • 38% earn between £10,000 - £20,000
  • 17% earn less than £10,000 per year

Cultural heritage:

  • Less than 1% earn more than £41,000 per year
  • Less than 1% earn between £29,000 - £41,000
  • 6% earn between £20,000 - £29,000
  • 34% earn between £10,000 - £ 20,000
  • 60% earn less than £10,000

Design:

  • 15% earn more than £41,000 per year
  • 13% earn between £29,000 - £41,000
  • 27% earn between £20,000 - £29,000
  • 38% earn between £10,000 - £20,000
  • 8% earn less than £10,000

Literature

  • Less than 1% earn more than £41,000 per year
  • 20% earn between £29,000 - £41,000
  • 29% earn between £20,000 - £29,000
  • 17% earn between £10,000 - £20,000
  • 34% earn less than £10,000

Music:

  • 5% earn more than £41,000 per year
  • 19% earn between £29,000 - £41,000
  • 16% earn between £20,000 - £29,000
  • 21% earn between £10,000 - £20,000
  • 39% earn less than £10,000

Performing arts:

  • 18% earn more than £41,000 per year
  • Less than 1% earn between £29,000 - £41,000
  • 10% earn between £20,000 - £29,000
  • 31% earn between £10,000 - £20,000
  • 42% earn less than £10,000 per year

Working as a performer does not always provide constant and consistent income, so many performers balance a variety of part-time roles that are often not specific to the sector.

Visual arts:

  • 3% earn more than £41,000 per year
  • 2% earn between £29,000 - £41,000
  • 5% earn between £20,000 - £29,000
  • 31% earn between £10,000 - £20,000
  • 59% earn less than £10,000 per year

Source: Creative & Cultural Skills AACS LMI report 2010

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Occupational roles and sources of information

The Creative Choices website is part of Creative & Cultural Skills Sector Skills Council. Job profiles are available for all industries and include information on responsibilities, skills and knowledge required.

The National Careers Service website has detailed occupational profiles for some occupations in the arts, crafts and design and performing arts, broadcast and media sectors. These profiles include information on entry points, training, working environment, employment opportunities and expected annual salary.

The Graduate Prospects website (a graduate careers website) includes information on broad sectors including: Advertising, marketing and PR and Creative arts. Each includes information on: job roles entry and progression; typical employers; opportunities abroad; future trends; case studies; plus a list of contacts and resources.

Careersbox has films of those working in the creative and media sector, including: marketing programme coordinator; production & marketing assistant; general manager (theatre); artists award; location sound recordist; and make-up artist. Films are from those already working in the sector giving an insight into what it is like and what their role involves.

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