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Creative and Cultural industries


Craft

The craft industry comprises individual designer makers and small businesses from a diverse range of disciplines spanning the contemporary, traditional and heritage spectrum. Designer-made traditional and contemporary craft covers a wide range of individual disciplines including:

basket-making; bookbinding; candle-making; ceramics; fashion accessories; furniture; glass; jewellery; leather working; lettering and calligraphy; metal working; mosaic; musical instrument making; recycled textiles; stone carving; taxidermy; textiles; toys and automata; wood turning and sculpture; heritage and traditional crafts; paper crafts

Key statistics:

  • There are 88,250 people working in the craft industry, of which: 37% work in graphic craft; 15% textiles; 13% jewellery; 8% heritage and rural crafts; 8% potter and ceramics; 7% stone; 5% iron and metals; 5% wood; 2% glass; and less than 1% taxidermist.
  • There are 13,060 businesses, of which 98% employ less than 50 people.
  • Craft contributes £2.9 billion to the UK economy.

Workforce statistics:

  • 65% of the workforce is male.
  • 94% of the workforce is white.
  • 50% of the workforce is aged between 30-40 years.
  • 37% of the craft workforce is self-employed, 21% work part-time.
  • Women in the industry are generally more highly qualified than men (43% have an above level 4 qualification as their highest qualification compared with 27% of men).
  • Women are likely to earn less money than men (67% of women in craft earn less than £20,000 per year, compared to 50% of men).
  • The industry is made up of a large number of makers operating in the same, small and localised market places.
  • 33% of those working in craft have at least a level 4 qualification.

Jobs in the industry include: blacksmith, engraver, gemologist, glassmaker, hair makeup and wigs, heritage and historical skills, illustrator, joiner and cabinet maker, leatherworker, musical instrument maker, potter, sculptor, stone mason, toymaker, woodworker

Entry routes into the craft industry are diverse. The majority of professionals enter the industry as a second career and a significant proportion describe themselves as self-taught. There are a range of educational opportunities, together with industry endorsed courses (at foundation, undergraduate and postgraduate level), apprenticeships and training schemes. Informal learning opportunities, including courses run by makers and by craft guilds, are also available.

There is a concern that declining craft education in school and reduced availability of evening and weekend courses will result in fewer people entering the industry.

Current skills in the industry are focused on crafts makers: being innovative; using IT and computer aided design (CAD) as part of the production of craft; producing environmentally sound goods; drawing upon diverse backgrounds and experience to influence their work and sales; becoming more involved in representing the industry to government and the public.

Future skills for the industry include:

  • Negotiation and Partnership Building – As more makers look to collaborate with other industries there is likely to be an increased demand for training in negotiation and partnerships.
  • IT and Digital Technology – New entrants will continue to need training in areas such as e-commerce, using software packages to build websites and present their work.
  • Teaching – Makers may need further training in how to teach their skills to others.
  • Leadership – To continue having more focused leadership the industry will need to be able to train the next generation of leaders.

There are 11,640 people working in the Northern Ireland creative and cultural sector. Craft in Northern Ireland contributes £39.9 million to the UK economy. 2% of the UK craft workforce is located in Northern Ireland. 99% of the craft workforce is white and 72% of the workforce is male. 30% of the craft workforce in Northern Ireland is self-employed.

There are 45,420 people working in the Scottish creative and cultural sector. 6% of the UK craft workforce is located in Scotland. Craft in Scotland contributes £131 million to the UK economy. 99% of the craft workforce is white and 63% of the workforce is male. 36% of the craft workforce in Scotland is self-employed.

There are 24,060 people working in the Welsh creative and cultural sector. 4% of the UK craft workforce is located in Wales. Craft in Wales contributes £73 million to the UK economy. 99% of the workforce is white and 68% of the workforce is male. 36% of the Welsh craft workforce is self-employed.

Sources: Creative & Cultural Skills AACS LMI report 2010, The Craft Blueprint 2009 and Impact and footprint – Craft 2009

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Cultural heritage

The cultural heritage industry includes: museums, galleries with collections, built heritage, conservation, heritage landscape, archaeology and related member organisations. It is broad, encompassing historic buildings, landscapes and collections – from towns, cities and rural spaces in the UK, to collections from across the world. These sites are held in trust on behalf of the public.

The industry comprises all those who collect, preserve, study and communicate the past, present and future in order to develop and promote understanding and curiosity. It consists of a variety of organisations, institutions, sector bodies and individuals that operate at a national level. A core part of the industry is publicly funded.

 Key statistics:

  • There are 57,350 people working in the cultural heritage industry, of which:
    • 59% are in museums and archives
    • 29% in built heritage
    • 12% in archaeology
  • Employment in cultural heritage increased by 7% between 2004 and 2006.
  • There are 1,510 businesses, of which 77% employ less than 50 people.
  • Cultural heritage contributes £1.01 billion to the UK economy.

Workforce statistics:

  • Only 4% of the workforce is self-employed.
  • 36% of the workforce is employed part-time.
  • 48% of the workforce is male.
  • 93% of the workforce is white.
  • 55% of the workforce is under the age of 40 and 12% is aged between 45-49 years.
  • Women in the industry are generally more highly qualified than men (60% have an above level 4 qualification as their highest qualification compared with 40% of men).
  • 74% of women earn less than £10,000, compared to 51% of men.
  • 94% of people working in cultural heritage earn less than £20,000 per year.
  • 50% of those working in cultural heritage have a level 4 or above qualification.
  • Volunteering is significant in the industry.

Jobs in the industry include: admission staff, archaeological scientist, archivist, art exhibition organiser, artistic director, box office staff, conservation officer, curator, documentation staff, exhibitions staff, historian, inspector of ancient monuments

There are few entry routes into the cultural heritage industry and there is a strong emphasis on academic qualifications. The high cost of training, limited opportunities for on-the-job training, and the high number of graduates make entry into the sector very competitive. Experience is a requirement for many jobs across the sector and volunteering is seen as a key route to gain that experience. Volunteering is a key feature of the industry. Progressions routes in the industry are varied and dependent on the organisation.

Cultural heritage, more than any other industry, is driven by Public Sector spending priorities and as part of the conditions of funding, there are accountability and performance targets. As a result, organisations are becoming more businesslike in their operation. The heritage industry is seen by central Government as a significant route to engage excluded individuals and communities. These drivers are all believed to influence employment in the industry.

Currently, the industry is focused on the workforce developing leadership, management, technical skills and customer service skills. Future skills for the industry include:

  • Management and leadership – where experience of working in the industry is required
  • Technical skills – to maintain and update the broad range of skills in conservation, collection care, collection development and archaeology
  • Partnership working – to encourage cross sector working and organisational collaboration

Across the creative and cultural industries, employment in professional, associated and technical roles will increase by 26% over the next few years, compared with 15% across the UK. 39% of creative and cultural employers state that all occupations will maintain their current importance. Fundraising is expected to be of increasing importance in the cultural heritage industry and creative writers are expected to be important to success in the literary arts industry.

There are 11,640 people working in the Northern Ireland creative and cultural sector. 3% of the UK cultural heritage workforce is located in Northern Ireland. Cultural heritage in Northern Ireland contributes £0.1 million to the UK economy. More than 99% of the workforce is white and 23% of the workforce is male. Less than 1% of the workforce in Northern Ireland is self-employed.

There are 45,420 people working in the Scottish creative and cultural sector. 10% of the UK cultural heritage workforce is located in Scotland. Cultural heritage in Scotland contributes £41 million to the UK economy. More than 99% of the cultural heritage workforce is white and 53% of the workforce is male. 2% of the cultural heritage workforce in Scotland is self-employed.

There are 24,060 people working in the Welsh creative and cultural sector. 4% of the UK cultural heritage workforce is located in Wales. Cultural heritage in Wales contributes £0.9 million to the UK economy. More than 99% of the workforce is white and 50% of the workforce is male. 4% of the Welsh cultural heritage workforce is self-employed.

Sources: Creative & Cultural Skills AACS LMI report 2010, Impact and footprint – Cultural Heritage 2009 and The Creative and Cultural Heritage Blueprint 2008

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Design

The design industry covers a range of disciplines, including: communications; graphic; product and industrial; interior and exhibitions; digital and multimedia; and service design. Design is an integral part of modern culture combining aesthetic techniques, practicality and creativity to deliver solutions that make everyday life simpler and businesses more effective.

Key statistics:

  • There are 193,969 people working in the design industry, of which:51% are in communications, interior and exhibition; 42% are in product and industrial design; and 7% are in stage and set design.
  • There are 18,105 businesses, of which 94% employ less than 50 people.
  • 34% of the design workforce is located in London and the South East.
  • Design contributes £6.8 billion to the UK economy.

Workforce statistics:

  • 32% of the design workforce is self-employed.
  • 14% of the workforce work part-time.
  • 68% of the workforce is male.
  • 93% of the workforce is white.
  • 18% of the workforce is aged between 25-29 years, 16% between 30-34 years and 60% is under 40 years of age.
  • 50% of those working in design have a level 4 or above qualification.
  • Men and women are equally likely to have a qualification at level 4 or above.
  • Women are likely to earn less money than men (66% of women in design earn less than £20,000 per year, compared to only 39% of men).

Jobs in the industry include: advertising design, computer game designer, costume designer, exhibition designer, fashion designer, footwear designer, graphic designer, industrial designer, interactive designer, interior designer, product designer, textile designer, textile maker

There are a range of industry endorsed courses (both at undergraduate and post-graduate), training schemes and vocational qualifications available. However, employers tend not to use accredited qualifications, or, where they do, they only use higher level qualifications. Across the industry, employers focus on training needs and skills gaps rather than qualifications. In terms of employee training, employers often create their own training solutions or work through trade associations who provide training programmes for their members.

In art and design roles, art school graduates are preferred. Although they have higher-level qualifications, progression is usually linked to portfolios and experience. Recruitment to managerial and administrative roles usually requires a degree or equivalent.

The design industry is very commercial and for businesses, financial results and profits are important. However, there is widely held pride in the output that the industry and designers within it produce. The key drivers of change in the industry influencing employment trends are:

  • Emerging economies – there is competitive threat posed by the emerging economies, such as India and China.
  • Technology Use – this will continue to impact on the industry, including shortening design timescales, faster communication, the emergence of rapid prototyping, and businesses requiring fewer people to carry out more tasks.
  • Growth of the service sector – means that designers are working more in non-visual areas and businesses.
  • Increasing sophistication of branding – the need to utilise emotional mechanisms (such as aesthetics, taste, pleasure and memory) for commercial benefit and to integrate brand values into products and services.
  • Intellectual Property with clients – there is likely to be a demand for more joint ownership of intellectual property with clients and even a refusal to work on a fee only basis.
    Consumer preference – a new culture of sustainable development and environmentally aware practice is developing.

Future skills needed in the industry include: marketing and PR; IT and digital skills, for the freelance workforce in particular; business acumen and management for business growth and expansion into new markets; Creative Design skills; and global business development as there is a need to tap into emerging economies.

The role proving hardest to fill in the design industry is the creative role. Other problematic roles relate to the sales and service function of the industry.

There are 11,640 people working in the Northern Ireland creative and cultural sector. 2% of the UK design workforce is located in Northern Ireland. Design in Northern Ireland contributes £164 million to the UK economy. More than 99% of the design workforce is white and 72% of the workforce is male. Only 12% of the design workforce in Northern Ireland is self-employed.

There are 45,420 people working in the Scottish creative and cultural sector. 7% of the UK design workforce is located in Scotland. Design in Scotland contributes £327 million to the UK economy. 99% of the design workforce is white and 68% of the workforce is male. 26% of the design workforce in Scotland is self-employed.

There are 24,060 people working in the Welsh creative and cultural sector. 3% of the UK design workforce is located in Wales. Design in Wales contributes £73 million to the UK economy. 96% of the workforce is white and 64% of the workforce is male. 31% of the Welsh design workforce is self-employed.

Sources: Creative & Cultural Skills AACS LMI report 2010, Impact and footprint – Design 2009 and The Design Blueprint 2008

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Literature

The literature industry includes areas of work, such as: aspiring writers; novelists; poets; playwrights; editors; agents; translators; critics; and the literature development sector. The industry is relatively small and historically its activity has been funding-driven, with many organisations dependent on core funding from public or charitable sources. Work is carried out by organisations employing low numbers of staff and a relatively high proportion of freelancers, or people employed on short-term contracts.

Key statistics:

  • There are 74,395 people working in the literature industry, of which: 69% are authors and writer; and 31% work in artistic and literary creatio.
  • Employment levels increased by 8% between 2004 and 2006.
  • There are 19,985 businesses, of which 95% employ less than 50 people.
  • 48% of the literature workforce is located in London and the South East.
  • The industry contributes £2.1 billion to the UK economy.

Workforce statistics:

  • 65% of the literature workforce is self-employed, 33% work part-time.
  • 54% of the workforce is male.
  • 91% of the workforce is white.
  • 40% of the workforce is under 40 years and 14% is aged between 35-39 years.
  • There is little difference between the qualification levels of men and women.
  • Women are likely to earn less money than men (57% of the women earn less than £20,000 per year, compared to 43% of men).
  • 67% of those working in the industry have a level 4 or higher qualification.

Jobs in the industry include: author, critic, editor, education staff (arts), promoter, writer

Developing business skills and an understanding of the industry is vital in order to be able to profit from writing. A wide range of careers in publishing, editing and education are also possible and being able to demonstrate transferable skills improves employment opportunities. There are relatively few opportunities for career progression within the industry.

The artist as educator is increasingly seen as vital in the industry. There is a clear link between art and education as a form of occupational therapy, with authors, poets and storytellers involved as educators most typically in schools, but also in facilitating community and prison workshops.

 Key drivers of change in the industry include:

  • Technology has shortened the necessary steps required for a literary artist to develop their creative work to a finished creative product. For example, an author can self-publish a book or a poet can record a DVD.
  • The development of new markets and technology has opened up the accessibility of the literary arts to a wider group.

Generally, skills involved in the technical or production side of the industry are becoming more and more important. The fragmentation of key markets in the publishing industry has led to the need for additional skills, which can involve editing, proof reading and marketing. Future skills for the industry include: editing; creative writing skills; professional skills (now encapsulating previous professional skills and education skills); fundraising (at all levels, from entry to senior); transition skills; and IT/digital.

There are 11,640 people working in the Northern Ireland creative and cultural sector. 2% of the UK literature workforce is located in Northern Ireland. Literature in Northern Ireland contributes £11 million to the UK economy. More than 99% of the literature workforce is white and 72% of the workforce is male. 70% of the literature workforce in Northern Ireland is self-employed.

There are 45,420 people working in the Scottish creative and cultural sector. 5% of the UK literature workforce is located in Scotland. Literature in Scotland contributes £52 million to the UK economy. 95% of the literature workforce is white and 46% of the workforce is male. 66% of the literature workforce in Scotland is self-employed.

There are 24,060 people working in the Welsh creative and cultural sector. 3% of the UK literature workforce is located in Wales. Literature in Wales contributes £27 million to the UK economy. More than 99% of the workforce is white. 56% of the Welsh literature workforce is self-employed.

Source: Creative & Cultural Skills AACS LMI report 2010 and Impact and footprint – Literature 2009

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Music

The music industry includes trade associations, businesses and employers in: recording/labels companies; music publishers; musical instruments; audio production and retail; live events and promotion; specialist music retailers; not-for-profit music organisation; as well as music education and training providers.

Key statistics:

  • There are 102,210 people working in the music industry, of which:
    • 50,780 work in live performance
    • 21,930 in production, retail and distribution of musical instrument/audio equipment
    • 15,130 in retail and distribution of recordings
    • 10,190 in recording
    • 2,890 in composition of musical works and music publishing
    • 1,300 in promotion, management and agency related activities
  • Employment in music increased by 8% between 2004 and 2006.
  • 25% of the workforce is located in London.
  • There are 13,760 businesses, of which 89% employ less than 50 people.
  • The music industry contributes £4.2 billion to the UK economy.

Workforce statistics:

  • 46% of the music workforce is self-employed.
  • 34% of the workforce works part-time.
  • 66% of the workforce is male.
  • 92% of the workforce is white.
  • 50% of the workforce is under 40 years of age, 13% is aged between 25-29 years and 13% is aged between 35-39 years.
  • Women in the industry are slightly more highly qualified than men (38% have an above level 4 qualification as their highest qualification compared with 35% of men).
  • Women are likely to earn less money than men (78% of women in music earn less than £20,000 per year, compared to 51% of men).
  • 36% of those working in the music industry have at least a level 4 qualification.
  • 8% of the workforce has no qualifications.

Jobs in the industry include: agent, artistic director, classical musician, composer/arranger DJ, lighting technician, lyricist/songwriter, manager (music), music and audio manufacturer, music conductor, music teacher, performer (recording artist), publicity and promotions, singer, sound engineer

Entry requirements are varied. There is a wide range of educational opportunities (at foundation, undergraduate and postgraduate level) and graded exams in music performance, music literacy and music theatre. There is some concern that students are entering courses in further and higher education, which do not lead to employment, but also that employers are not engaging adequately with the training and education world. In the classical music sector, qualifications gained at a small number of conservatoires in the Conservatoires UK group are often preferred by employers

There is an estimated need for 30,000 technical staff and the need to replace and expand the current workforce by 2013, in part to support the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympic Games.

Key drivers of change in the industry include:

  • IT and Digital Technology – this ranges from convergence of product delivery onto digital platforms, to the ease with which new music can be created and marketed.
  • Intellectual Property – with new distribution channels, challenges arise in both formal and informal ways of accessing music.
  • Marketing Specialisms – the role of marketing in achieving commercial success, particularly in a global marketplace, continues to be of prime importance.
  • Small Music Firms – these businesses have considerable entrepreneurial drive led by people who will invest their personal funds in their businesses.

Drivers of skill requirements in the industry are: IT and digital technology developments; the challenges of intellectual property; marketing in a global marketplace; and entrepreneurial skills in small music firms. Future skills for the industry include: creating and managing knowledge; management skills; selling and marketing skills; IT and digital skills; negotiation skills; and performing skills.

There are 11,640 people working in the Northern Ireland creative and cultural sector. 2% of the UK music workforce is located in Northern Ireland. The music industry in Northern Ireland contributes £59 million to the UK economy. More than 99% of the music workforce is white and 63% of the workforce is male. 34% of the music workforce in Northern Ireland is self-employed.

There are 45,420 people working in the Scottish creative and cultural sector. 6% of the UK music workforce is located in Scotland. The music industry in Scotland contributes £230 million to the UK economy. 98% of the music workforce is white. 30% of the music workforce in Scotland is self-employed.

There are 24,060 people working in the Welsh creative and cultural sector. 4% of the UK music workforce is located in Wales. The music industry in Wales contributes £69 million to the UK economy. 99% of the workforce is white and 69% of the workforce is male. 38% of the Welsh music workforce is self-employed.

Source: Creative & Cultural Skills AACS LMI report 2010 and Impact and footprint – Music 2009

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Performing arts

The performing arts comprises venues, employers, small businesses and freelancers in the theatre sector (including classical, contemporary, street arts, carnival arts, circus and physical theatre), dance, opera and the live music industry (including live performances of classical, pop, rock and all contemporary forms of music). The industry workforce includes performers, promoters and those who provide backstage technical input and administration.

 Key statistics:

  • There are 101,593 people working in the performing arts, of which: 34% are employed in onstage occupations, such as acting or dancing.
  • Employment grew by 20% between 2006/07 and 2008/09.
  • 45% of the workforce is located in London and the South East.
  • There are 5,480 businesses, of which 92% employ less than 50 people.
  • The performing arts industry contributes £4.6 billion to the UK economy.

Workforce statistics:

  • 51% male of the workforce is male.
  • 94% of the workforce is white.
  • 58% of the workforce is self-employed.
  • Men and women are equally likely to have a level 4 or above qualification.
  • Men are likely to earn less money than women (87% of men earn less than £20,000 per year, compared to 58% of women).
  • 73% of the performing arts workforce earns less than £20,000 a year.
  • 40% of those working in performing arts have at least a level 4 qualification.

Jobs in the industry include: actor, agent, artistic director, choreographer, circus performer, dancer, entertainer, hair, makeup and wigs, props maker, puppeteer, rigger, sound technician, stage manager, studio manager, theatre director, wardrobe assistant

At entry level, experience is valued, so many start with volunteering in the industry. There are a range of educational opportunities, together with industry endorsed courses and training schemes. Informal learning opportunities are widely available.

There is a lack of structured career paths and progression. Information is also lacking about the relevance and value of courses to enter the performing arts. Performers have to be proactive in considering potential sources of future income - essential to earn a sufficient living from performance, especially in the early stages of careers.

Employment in the industry is characterised by a high number of freelancers. Portfolio working is common with a second job to supplement artistic income.

There is an estimated need for 30,000 technical staff, together with the need to replace and expand the current workforce by 2013, in part to support the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympic Games.

Future skills for the industry include:

  • Creative and performance skills, in areas of growth such as street arts
  • Technical skills
  • Leadership and management skills, particularly for freelance/portfolio working and collaboration
  • Education and community development skills
  • Fundraising from entry level upwards with an increasing demand for fundraisers

There are 11,640 people working in the Northern Ireland creative and cultural sector. 2% of the UK performing arts workforce is located in Northern Ireland. In Northern Ireland, it contributes £42 million to the UK economy. More than 99% of the workforce is white and 86% of the workforce is male.

There are 45,420 people working in the Scottish creative and cultural sector. 10% of the UK performing arts workforce is located in Scotland. In Scotland, it contributes £143 million to the UK economy. More than 99% of the workforce is white and 86% of the workforce is male.

There are 24,060 people working in the Welsh creative and cultural sector. 3% of the UK performing arts workforce is located in Wales. The industry in Wales contributes £86 million to the UK economy. 99% of the workforce is white and 58% of the workforce is male.

Source: Creative & Cultural Skills AACS LMI report 2010

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Visual arts

The UK visual arts industry employs a range of people in an array of different jobs and practices. The workforce is dominated by individuals and sole traders – artists, freelancers, consultants, interns and volunteers. Many also contribute to education programmes and community work. Employers are museums, galleries, studios, arts centres, public sector agencies, public art agencies, educational bodies, studio organisations, festivals and art fairs. The industry is supported by technicians, curators, managers, publicists, academics, educators, project managers, art theorists, critics and more.

The visual arts industry is linked to other industries, such as advertising, interactive media, games, publishing and design. Many of visual arts skills are transferable to other creative professions.

Key statistics:

  • There are 37,480 people working in the visual arts, of which 76% are artists and 24% are in art retail.
  • There was a 17% increase in workforce numbers between 2004 and 2006.
  • There are 4,580 businesses, of which 82% employ less than 50 people.
  • Visual arts contribute £1.9 billion to the UK economy.

Workforce statistics:

  • 50% of the workforce is male.
  • 95% of the workforce is white.
  • 42% of the workforce is under the age of 40 years and 15% is aged between 40-44 years.
  • 70% of those in the visual arts are self-employed.
  • 14% of the workforce is part-time.
  • Men (66%) are more likely to have a level 4 qualification than women (58%).
  • 57% of those working in visual arts have at least a level 4 qualification.
  • Women are likely to earn less money than men (71% of women earn less than £10,000 per year, compared to 40% of men).
  • Many visual artists have portfolio careers combining a variety of different jobs.

Jobs in the industry include: animator, art editor, art exhibition organiser, art handler, art valuer, arts administrator, attendant/gallery staff, development arts – staff, illustrator, manager - arts centre, sculptor, technical illustrator

In the visual arts industry, gaining experience and learning through action is a fundamental principle. The industry values work-based learning and often entrants do not enter occupations with a complete range of skills. Continuing professional development and the provision of courses are common. Occupational pathways in the industry are non-existent, unclear or overly complicated.

Due to government policy and social regeneration, there has been a widening perception of public art. Public art is increasingly seen as a quality marker for the built environment which has led to changes in the traditional perceptions of the industry. Visual art are been displayed in a variety of public locations, such as public transport and shopping precincts.

There is only anecdotal evidence that artists are lacking production and IT skills. For artists, the specific skills lacking are artistic, craft, finance/accounting, IT and technical. In the creative role, business development, design, production and technical skills are lacking.

Future skills for the industry include: marketing skills (awareness of new markets and the creation of ‘cultural products’)

  • Entrepreneurial skills (taking ‘cultural products’ to new markets)
  • Digital/IT skills
  • Freelancing skills (professional skills and contract, budget, use of accounting, co-operation skills)
  • Fundraising skills (awareness and some specialisation)
  • Education skills (entry level, facilitation and general practise)
  • Management/leadership
  • Transition skills (expressed elsewhere as a proxy for experience)

There are 11,640 people working in the Northern Ireland creative and cultural sector. 1% of the UK visual arts workforce is located in Northern Ireland. In Northern Ireland, the visual arts industry contributes £16 million to the UK economy. More than 99% of the visual arts workforce is white. 22% of the workforce is male. 51% of the visual arts workforce in Northern Ireland is self-employed.

There are 45,420 people working in the Scottish creative and cultural sector. 7% of the UK visual arts workforce is located in Scotland. The visual arts industry in Scotland contributes £47 million to the UK economy. 85% of the visual arts workforce is white. 33% of the workforce is male. 68% of the visual arts workforce in Scotland is self-employed.

There are 24,060 people working in the Welsh creative and cultural sector. 7% of the UK visual arts workforce is located in Wales. In Wales, it contributes £36 million to the UK economy. 96% of the workforce is white. 55% of the workforce is male. 81% of the Welsh visual arts workforce is self-employed.

Sources: Creative & Cultural Skills AACS LMI report 2010, The Visual Arts Blueprint 2009 and Impact and footprint – Visual Arts 2009

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