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Equal Opportunities

Gender

56% of the hospitality, leisure, travel and tourism workforce is female. There is little variation in the gender profile of the regional workforce across the UK, with the exception of London, where 57% of the workforce is male.

There are more pronounced gender differences at an occupational level. In the hospitality industry, women tend to dominate front of house roles (such as waiting staff, bar staff and catering assistants), whilst men are more likely to be working as chefs and cooks and as managers. The travel industry is female dominated at both travel agent (consultant) and managerial levels.

Key facts:

  • The proportion of male chefs rose from 50% in 2003/04 to 61% in 2009
  • Approximately 80% of travel agents are female.
  • Approximately 72% of females working in the sector do so on a part-time basis, compared with 28% of males.
  • Fewer than 6% of hospitality industry company directors are female.
  • Men tend to earn more than women in most core sector occupations.
  • Women working as receptionists, travel agents and as kitchen and catering assistants tend to earn more than their male counterparts.

Source: Sector Skills Assessment for the UK Hospitality, Leisure, Travel and Tourism Sector 2010


Age

The sector (particularly the hospitality industry) employs a young workforce. 15% of the workforce is aged between 16-19 years, many of whom are also in full-time education, compared with only 5% across all sectors. 34% of the workforce is aged between 20-29 years, compared with 13% across all sectors. Only 13% of the sector workforce is aged between 50-59 years and only 6% are over the age of 60.

The restaurant and pub industries are particularly reliant on young people (59% of those working in the pub, bar and nightclub industry are under the age of 30 and 55% of those working in the restaurant industry). The food and service management, hospitality services and self-catering accommodation/holiday centre industries operate with a slightly different age profile of workers with over half of their workforces being over the age of 40. The self-catering accommodation/holiday centre workforce has the oldest age profile with approximately 20% of the workforce being over the age of 60.

Those working as waiting staff, leisure and theme park attendants and bar staff tend to be young with few being over the age of 30 years. Those working in management roles tend to be older, particularly hotel and accommodation, conference and exhibition and travel agency managers. A relatively high proportion of managers of licensed premises and restaurant and catering managers are under the age of 30.

44% of those working as waiting staff and 41% of leisure and theme park attendants are also full-time students.

Source: Sector Skills Assessment for the UK Hospitality, Leisure, Travel and Tourism Sector 2010


Ethnicity

86% of the hospitality, leisure, travel and tourism workforce describe their ethnicity as white, 6% as Asian or British Asian, 2% as Black or Black British and 2% Chinese. The remainder describe their ethnicity as Mixed or Other. In London, however, 44% of the hospitality, leisure, travel and tourism workforce describe their ethnicity as Black and Minority Ethnic.

A high proportion of Black and Minority Ethnic workers are employed in the restaurant industry (27% across the UK and 61% in London). Only 5% of the pub, bar and nightclub workforce is from a Black and Minority Ethnic background.

Only 2% of hospitality board directors are from a Black and Minority Ethnic background and only 6% of middle management positions are occupied by Black and Minority Ethnic employees. At an occupational level, a quarter of all restaurant managers and a fifth of all chefs describe their ethnicity as Black and Minority Ethnic.

Approximately 20% of the hospitality, leisure, travel and tourism workforce were born overseas. In recent years, the expansion of the European Union (EU) in 2004 led to an influx of Eastern European workers (mainly from Poland) into the sector (particularly the hospitality industry).

Source: Sector Skills Assessment for the UK Hospitality, Leisure, Travel and Tourism Sector 2010