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Reading list

The full reading list is available to save in a printable format by clicking the Pages To Go button in the bottom right corner.

Reading and Researching: Some Useful Sources

The reading lists are divided into Core and Supplementary readings, and sometimes into further sub-topics. This does not mean that you should only concentrate on the Core readings, nor does it necessarily reflect on the quality of Supplementary readings; it is only an indication of the relevance of these readings to the seminar questions, and sometimes of the availability of items. I would also strongly encourage you to contribute to this reading list by bringing texts you found particularly helpful (or unhelpful!) to the attention of the class. Further, if you come across especially useful items (including websites) in the course of your independent research, that you think should be on the list, please do email and let me know.

Subject to legal and operational requirements, copies of all core readings are available either in the Library Short Loan Collection (SLC), Learning Grid or online. If a core reading is not available in this manner, you should consult the Subject Librarian and your module tutor. Each module has its own Course Extracts webpage on the library website, where you can download some of the core readings – generally these are journal articles where the journal is not held electronically by the Warwick library, or a single chapter from a book. (If a journal is held electronically by the library then you can access particular articles by bringing up the journal using the journal title search facility, then finding the issue you want and downloading the article you’re looking for. In these cases the article will not also be on the Course Extracts page.) You can click to the Course Extracts webpage for PO377 from the module webpage.

The recommended general introductory text for this module (if you wish to purchase a book) is:

  • Wolff, Stefan (2006) Ethnic Conflict: A Global Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Other very useful general texts are:

  • Horowitz, Donald (2000) Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2nd edn. (This is a seminal text in the field.)
  • Gurr, Ted Robert and Barbara Harff (2004) Ethnic Conflict in World Politics. London: Westview Press, 2nd edn. (Easy to read and useful introduction.)
  • Cordell, Karl and Stefan Wolff (eds) (2011) Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, Abingdon: Routledge. (Do not buy this one, it is too expensive as it is a handbook rather than a textbook. The library has it as an e-book for you to access online.)

I cannot emphasise enough the importance of consulting journals. During the year you will find that books are not always available when you need them. The journals not only provide you with the latest research on particular issues, they are also always available in the library as they cannot be borrowed. Warwick has an exceptional number of electronic journal subscriptions, so many (though by no means all) journal articles are available online for download – you may not even need to leave the house to have access to excellent pieces of research! There are also a number of e-books.

The following journals will be of particular value and are held in the Warwick Library:

  • Ethnic and Racial Studies (1978-)
  • Nationalism and Ethnic Politics (2003-)
  • Nations and Nationalism (1995-)
  • National Identities (1999-)
  • Terrorism and Political Violence (2001-)
  • Studies in Conflict and Terrorism (1992-)
  • Journal of Conflict Resolution (1957-)
  • Journal of Peace Research (1964-)
  • International Feminist Journal of Politics (1999-)
  • Women’s Studies International Forum (1982-)

Click here for the Library's Course Extracts Webpage


Websites of Interest (all open in a new window)

General

Sri Lanka

Northern Ireland

Rwanda

Former Yugoslavia


Referencing Websites

Web-based material, like printed material, must be referenced fully and appropriately. This means that we expect you to refer to any web-based material in exactly the same way (as far as possible) as you would refer to printed material.

So, for example, Chris Smith’s report on the availability of guns in Sri Lanka (available on the Small Arms Survey website) should be referenced in the following way. In the bibliography (and the first citation in footnotes, if using the note referencing system) it should be referenced as:

Smith, Chris (2003) ‘In the Shadow of a Cease-fire: The Impacts of Small Arms Availability and Misuse in Sri Lanka’, Small Arms Survey Occasional Paper No. 11. Available from: http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/files/sas/publications/o_papers_pdf/2003-op11-sri_lanka.pdf. Accessed 12/07/2006.

If it is not clear that there is an individual author then use the name of the organisation, for example Human Rights Watch or the United Nations. However, make sure that the title of the piece is referenced and the full URL website address of the specific piece (not the initial gateway homepage) is included, together with the date you accessed it.

The date of access is important because it indicates to the reader the ‘health’ and age of the site – some web pages are removed or changed after a while. If you have accessed the referenced page, then we should also be able to do so. If you are quoting web-based material from someone else’s work, then a reference to that should be made by including ‘cited in…’. If you are using material from a page that is likely to change or be removed, it is a good idea to print the information and retain the pages (with the web details printed on the top or bottom of the page) for us to look at if that becomes necessary.

Finally, students often get confused about referencing when it comes to electronic journal articles they have downloaded from the library website. You do not need to provide any kind of internet URL details in this case. If you download a journal article in PDF format from the library, it will appear and print out exactly like the hardcopy version, with the same page numbering and so forth. It will give you all the usual journal article referencing information, so just reference it in the same way as you would a journal article you picked up in hardcopy from the library shelves. (When an article downloads in a format other than PDF it will often not give you the page numbers – in this case, the first time you cite that article you can merely note that no page numbers were provided.)

See the PAIS Undergraduate Student Handbook for information on referencing your essays.


WEEKLY TOPIC OUTLINES AND READING LISTS



Term 1, Week 1 Lecture/Week 2 Seminar

Introduction to the Module and Key Concepts

  • *Note: The first lecture will be devoted to introducing this module and beginning to define some of the key terms used on the module. The first seminar (in week 2) will primarily be devoted to introductions and to sorting out student presentations. In any available time left we will discuss key concepts and your preconceptions about them.

Core Reading

  • Cordell, Karl and Stefan Wolff (2011) ‘The Study of Ethnic Conflict: An Introduction’, in K Cordell and S Wolff (eds) Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, Abingdon: Routledge.
  • Fenton, Steve and Stephen May (2002) ‘Ethnicity, Nation and “Race”: Connections and Disjunctures’, in S Fenton and S May (eds.) Ethnonational Identities. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. (Discusses definitions of ethnic group, nation and ‘race’, and the problems differentiating between them. Useful.)
  • Gurr, Ted Robert and Barbara Harff (2004) Ethnic Conflict in World Politics. London: Westview Press, 2nd edn (chpts 1-2). (This book is easy to read.)
  • Horowitz, Donald (2000) Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2nd edn (chpt. 1). (A seminal work in the field and a recommended text.)
  • Wolff, Stefan (2006) Ethnic Conflict: A Global Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press (introduction, chpts 1-2). (This book is easy to read.)
  • Supplementary Reading
  • Anderson, Benedict (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 2nd edn (chpt. 1). (Very short introduction which outlines his definition of ‘nation’ as an imagined political community.)
  • Banton, Michael (2000) ‘Ethnic Conflict’, Sociology vol. 34 no. 3, pp.481-498. (Sceptical about the notion of ‘ethnic conflict’ as a distinct form of armed conflict; he thinks this means we assume the conflict is primarily ‘ethnic’ in nature and cause, and ignore other aspects and causes.)
  • Brown, Michael E (1993) ‘Causes and Implications of Ethnic Conflict’, in M E Brown (ed.) Ethnic Conflict and International Security. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 3-26.
  • Calhoun, Craig (1997) Nationalism. Buckingham: Open University Press (chpt. 2) [available from module extracts webpage]. (Discusses nationalism and ethnicity and the primordialist versus instrumentalist/constructivist debate.)
  • Cohen, R (1978) ‘Ethnicity: Problem and Focus in Anthropology’, Annual Review of Anthropology vol. 7, pp. 379-403. (Discusses the shift from use of the term ‘tribe’ to ‘ethnicity’ and explores the definitional problems with the concept of ethnicity.)
  • Connor, Walker (1994) Ethnonationalism: The Quest for Understanding. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (chpt. 4). First published as (1978) ‘A Nation is a Nation, is a State, is an Ethnic Group, is a…’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 1 October, pp. 377-400. (Discussion of the history and shifting meanings of various terms.)
  • Eriksen, T H (1991) ‘Ethnicity versus Nationalism’, Journal of Peace Research vol. 28 July, pp. 263-278.
  • Fenton, Steve (2003) Ethnicity. Cambridge: Polity (chpts 1 and 3). (Discusses definitions of ethnic group, nation and ‘race’ and how the terms ‘ethnic’ and ‘ethnicity’ came to replace the use of ‘race’ and ‘tribe’.)
  • Gellner, Ernest (1983) Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell (chpt. 1).
  • Hannaford, Ivan (1996) Race: The History of an Idea in the West. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center.
  • Hutchinson, John and Anthony Smith (eds.) (1994) Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press (section I ‘The Question of Definition’). (Short extracts by key scholars of nationalism.)
  • Hutchinson, John and Anthony Smith (eds.) (1996) Ethnicity. Oxford: Oxford University Press (section I ‘Concepts of Ethnicity’).
  • Jay, Richard (1994) ‘Nationalism’, in R Eccleshall et al. (eds.) Political Ideologies: An Introduction. London: Routledge, 2nd edn, pp. 153-184.
  • McCrone, David (1998) The Sociology of Nationalism: Tomorrow’s Ancestors. London: Routledge (chpts 2 and 5).
  • Motyl, A J (1992) ‘The Modernity of Nationalism: Nations, States and Nation-States in the Contemporary World’, Journal of International Affairs vol. 45 no. 2, pp. 307-323.
  • Smith, Anthony D (1993) ‘The Ethnic Sources of Nationalism’, in M E Brown (ed.) Ethnic Conflict and International Security. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • van den Berghe, Pierre L (1990) ‘Introduction’, in Pierre L van den Berghe (ed.) State Violence and Ethnicity. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado.
  • Verdery, Katherine (1993) ‘Whither “Nation” and “Nationalism”?’, Daedalus vol. 122 no. 3, pp. 37-46. (Says we should view ‘the nation’ as a symbol rather than as a thing in itself.)
  • Yuval-Davis, Nira (1997) Gender & Nation. London: Sage (chpt. 1).


Term 1, Week 2 Lecture/Week 3 Seminar

Sri Lanka

Seminar Questions:

  • Is the Sri Lankan conflict a product of colonialism or a post-colonial problem?
  • Was armed conflict in Sri Lanka inevitable?

Core Reading

*Please note that the whole of the controversial 2011 Channel 4 documentary 'Sri Lanka's Killing Fields' and its 2012 follow-up 'Sri Lanka's Killing Fields: War Crimes Unpunished' are available to watch online, from the Channel 4 webpage on Sri Lanka. These are recommended to help you understand the end to the war and some of its aftermath, but please be aware that they are EXTREMELY upsetting to watch.

  • DeVotta, Neil (2002) ‘Illiberalism and Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka’, Journal of Democracy vol. 13 no. 1, pp. 84-98.
  • Gunawardana, R A L H (1990) ‘The People of the Lion: The Sinhala Identity and Ideology in History and Historiography’, in Jonathan Spencer (ed.) Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict. London: Routledge, pp. 45-86.
  • International Crisis Group (2010) Sri Lanka: A Bitter Peace, ICG Asia Briefing No. 99 [available from: http://www.crisisgroup.org/~/media/Files/asia/south-asia/sri-lanka/b99%20sri%20lanka%20a%20bitter%20peace.ashx]
  • Lunn, Jon, Claire Taylor and Ian Townsend (2009) War and Peace in Sri Lanka, Research Paper 09/51, House of Commons Library [available from: http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/research/rp2009/rp09-051.pdf] (chpt 1 – gives a bit of history then a useful summary of events from the 2002 ceasefire until 2009).
  • Nissan, Elizabeth and R L Stirrat (1990) ‘The Generation of Communal Identities’, in Jonathan Spencer (ed.) Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict. London: Routledge, pp. 19-44.
  • Spencer, Jonathan (1990) ‘Introduction: The Power of the Past’, in Jonathan Spencer (ed.) Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict. London: Routledge, pp. 1-16.
  • Stokke, Kristian (1998) ‘Sinhalese and Tamil Nationalism as Post-Colonial Political Projects from “Above”, 1948-1983’, Political Geography, vol. 17 no. 1, pp. 83-113.
  • Wilson, A Jeyaratnam (2000) Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism: Its Origins and Development in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. London: Hurst (particularly chpts 1 and 6-8) [introduction available from module extracts webpage].

Supplementary Reading

  • Abeyratne, Sirimal (1998) Economic Change and Political Conflict in Developing Countries: With Special Reference to Sri Lanka. VU University Press.
  • Alison, Miranda (2009) Women and Political Violence: Female Combatants in Ethno-national Conflict. London: Routledge (chpt 2).
  • Balasingham, Adele (2001) The Will to Freedom: An Inside View of Tamil Resistance. Mitcham: Fairmax Publishing.
  • Bartholomeusz, Tessa J (2002) In Defense of Dharma: Just War Ideology in Buddhist Sri Lanka. London: RoutledgeCurzon.
  • Bastian, Sunil (1999) ‘The Failure of State Formation, Identity Conflict and Civil Society Responses – The Case of Sri Lanka’, Working Paper 2, Bradford: Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford [available from: http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/confres/papers/pdfs/CCR2.pdf].
  • Bose, Sumantra (1995) ‘State Crises and Nationalities Conflict in Sri Lanka and Yugoslavia’, Comparative Political Studies vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 87-116.
  • Bose, Sumantra (1994) States, Nations, Sovereignty: Sri Lanka, India and the Tamil Eelam Movement. New Delhi: Sage (especially chpts 2-4) [chapter on the LTTE available from module extracts webpage].
  • Bush, Kenneth D (2003) The Intra-Group Dimensions of Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka: Learning to Read between the Lines. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (chpts 4-8).
  • Channel 4 (1996) The Black Bag: Suicide Warriors. London: Channel 4 [30 minute videorecording about the Black Tigers in Sri Lanka, available to borrow from library].
  • Clarance, William (2007) Ethnic Warfare in Sri Lanka and the UN Crisis. London: Pluto Press (chpt 3).
  • de Silva, Kingsley (1999) Reaping the Whirlwind: Ethnic Conflict, Ethnic Politics in Sri Lanka. New Delhi: Penguin.
  • de Silva, K M, et al. (eds.) (1988) Ethnic Conflict in Buddhist Societies: Sri Lanka, Thailand and Burma. London: Pinter.
  • de Silva, Purnaka L (1999) ‘The Growth of Tamil Paramilitary Nationalisms: Sinhala Chauvinism and Tamil Responses’, in Siri Gamage and I B Watson (eds.) Conflict and Community in Contemporary Sri Lanka: “Pearl of the East” or the “Island of Tears”? New Delhi: Sage, pp. 89-107.
  • de Silva, P L (1995) ‘The Efficacy of “Combat Mode”: Organisation, Political Violence, Affect and Cognition in the Case of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam’, in Pradeep Jeganathan and Qadri Ismail (eds.) Unmaking the Nation: The Politics of Identity and History in Modern Sri Lanka. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association, pp. 176-190.
  • Gamage, Siri (1999) ‘Post-independent Political Conflicts in Sri Lanka: Élites, Ethnicity, and Class Contradictions’, in Siri Gamage and I B Watson (eds.) Conflict and Community in Contemporary Sri Lanka: “Pearl of the East” or the “Island of Tears”? New Delhi: Sage, pp. 326-355.
  • Goodhand, J, D Hulme and N Lewer (2000) ‘Social Capital and the Political Economy of Violence: A Case Study of Sri Lanka’, Disasters vol. 24 no. 4, pp. 390-406.
  • Gunaratna, Rohan (1999) ‘Internationalisation of the Tamil Conflict (and its implications)’, in Siri Gamage and I B Watson (eds.) Conflict and Community in Contemporary Sri Lanka: “Pearl of the East” or the “Island of Tears”? New Delhi: Sage, pp. 109-137.
  • Hannum, Hurst (1996) Autonomy, Sovereignty and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, rev. edn (chpt. 14).
  • Hellmann-Rajanayagam, Dagmar (1990) ‘The Politics of the Tamil Past’, in Jonathan Spencer (ed.) Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict. London: Routledge, pp. 107-122.
  • Hettige, Siri and Markus Mayer (eds) (2000) Sri Lanka at Crossroads: Dilemmas and Prospects After 50 Years of Independence. New Delhi: Macmillan.
  • Hettige, Siri (1999) ‘Economic Liberalisation, Social Class and Ethnicity: Emerging Trends and Conflicts’, in Siri Gamage and I B Watson (eds.) Conflict and Community in Contemporary Sri Lanka: “Pearl of the East” or the “Island of Tears”? New Delhi: Sage, pp. 299-323.
  • Human Rights Watch (2008) Recurring Nightmare: State Responsibility for ‘Disappearances’ and Abductions in Sri Lanka, vol. 20 no. 2 (C). New York: Human Rights Watch [available from: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/srilanka0308_1.pdf].
  • International Crisis Group (2007) Sri Lanka: Sinhala Nationalism and the Elusive Southern Consensus, Asia Report No. 141, Colombo/Brussels: ICG [available from: http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=5144&l=1].
  • McGilvray, Dennis B (1999) ‘Tamils and Muslims in the Shadow of War: Schism or Continuity?’, in Siri Gamage and I B Watson (eds.) Conflict and Community in Contemporary Sri Lanka: “Pearl of the East” or the “Island of Tears”? New Delhi: Sage, pp. 217-228.
  • O’Balance, Edgar (1989) The Cyanide War: Tamil Insurrection in Sri Lanka 1973-88. London: Brassey’s.
  • Philipson, Liz (ed.) (1998) Demanding Sacrifice: War and Negotiation in Sri Lanka, Accord 4. London: Conciliation Resources in association with the Social Scientists Association, Colombo (various chapters) [available, after signing up, from: http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/pdfs/index.php].
  • Ponnambalam, Satchi (1983) Sri Lanka: National Conflict and the Tamil Liberation Struggle. Thornton Heath: Tamil Information Centre.
  • Rajasingham-Senanayake, Darini (2001) ‘Ambivalent Empowerment: The Tragedy of Tamil Women in Conflict’, in Rita Manchanda (ed.) Women, War and Peace in South Asia: Beyond Victimhood to Agency. New Delhi: Sage, pp. 102-130.
  • Richardson, John (2005) Paradise Poisoned: Learning about Conflict, Terrorism and Development from Sri Lanka’s Civil Wars. Colombo: International Centre for Ethnic Studies.
  • Sabaratnam, Lakshmanan (1990) ‘Sri Lanka: The Lion and the Tiger in the Ethnic Archipelago’, in van den Berghe, Pierre L (ed.) State Violence and Ethnicity. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado.
  • Samaranayake, Gamini (1996) ‘Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka and Prospects of Management: An Empirical Inquiry’, in Conor Gearty (ed.) Terrorism. Aldershot: Dartmouth, pp. 547-559.
  • Schrijvers, Joke (1999) ‘Fighters, Victims and Survivors: Constructions of Ethnicity, Gender and Refugeeness among Tamils in Sri Lanka’, Journal of Refugee Studies vol. 12 no. 3, pp. 307-333.
  • Scott, David (1995) ‘Dehistoricising History’, in Pradeep Jeganathan and Qadri Ismail (eds.) Unmaking the Nation: The Politics of Identity and History in Modern Sri Lanka. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association, pp. 10-24.
  • Sivarajah, Ambalavanar (1996) Politics of Tamil Nationalism in Sri Lanka. New Delhi: South Asia Publishers.
  • Smith, Chris (2003) ‘In the Shadow of a Cease-fire: The Impacts of Small Arms Availability and Misuse in Sri Lanka’, Small Arms Survey Occasional Paper No. 11, October [available from: http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/files/sas/publications/o_papers_pdf/2003-op11-sri_lanka.pdf].
  • Tambiah, Stanley (1986) Sri Lanka: Ethnic Fratricide and the Dismantling of Democracy. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Trawick, Margaret (1999) ‘Reasons for Violence: A Preliminary Ethnographic Account of the LTTE’, in Siri Gamage and I B Watson (eds.) Conflict and Community in Contemporary Sri Lanka: “Pearl of the East” or the “Island of Tears”? New Delhi: Sage, pp. 139-163.
  • Wickramasinghe, Nira (2006) Sri Lanka in the Modern Age: A History of Contested Identities. London: C Hurst & Co (esp chpts 2 & 7).
  • Wilson, A Jeyaratnam. The Break-up of Sri Lanka: The Sinhalese-Tamil Conflict. London: Hurst, 1988.
  • Winslow, Deborah and Michael D Woost (eds) (2004) Economy, Culture and Civil War in Sri Lanka. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press (chpt 1).


Term 1, Week 3 Lecture/Week 4 Seminar

Northern Ireland

  • *Note: Shelfmark DA 950s-990s in the library has an enormous amount of material on all aspects of Northern Ireland.

Seminar Questions:

  • Is armed conflict in Northern Ireland best explained by internal or external root causes?
  • Were ‘the Troubles’ in Northern Ireland merely a continuation of past armed struggle in Ireland?

Core Reading

  • Clayton, Pamela (1998) ‘Religion, Ethnicity and Colonialism as Explanations of the Northern Ireland Conflict’, in David Miller (ed.) Rethinking Northern Ireland: Culture, Ideology and Colonialism. London and New York: Longman, pp. 40-54 [available from module extracts webpage].
  • Gallagher, Michael (1990) ‘Do Ulster Unionists Have a Right to Self-Determination?’, Irish Political Studies vol. 5, pp. 11-30 [available from module extracts webpage].
  • McGarry, John and Brendan O’Leary (1995) Explaining Northern Ireland: Broken Images. Oxford: Blackwell. (Outlines a wide range of competing explanations/interpretations of the NI conflict – this is a very useful book. However, for an interesting critique of one aspect of this book see Colin Coulter (1999) ‘The Absence of Class Politics in Northern Ireland’, Capital & Class vol. 69 Autumn, pp. 77-100. Coulter argues that McGarry and O’Leary take the pre-eminence of ethno-national identity over class identity in NI for granted, while Coulter asserts that this needs explaining and attempts to do so.)
  • Miller, David (1998) ‘Colonialism and Academic Representations of the Troubles’, in David Miller (ed.) Rethinking Northern Ireland: Culture, Ideology and Colonialism. London and New York: Longman, pp. 3-39.
  • O’Duffy, Brendan (1995) ‘Violence in Northern Ireland 1969-1994: Sectarian or Ethno-national?’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 18 no. 4, pp. 740-771.
  • O’Leary, Brendan and John McGarry (1996) The Politics of Antagonism: Understanding Northern Ireland. London and Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Athlone, 2nd edn.
  • Ruane, Joseph and Jennifer Todd (1996) The Dynamics of Conflict in Northern Ireland: Power, Conflict and Emancipation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Supplementary Reading

General

  • Akenson, Donald (1992) God’s People: Covenant and Land in South Africa, Israel and Ulster. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Aretxaga, Begoña (1997) Shattering Silence: Women, Nationalism, and Political Subjectivity in Northern Ireland. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Arthur, Paul (2000) Special Relationships: Britain, Ireland and the Northern Ireland Problem. Belfast: The Blackstaff Press Limited.
  • Aughey, Arthur (1989) Under Siege: Ulster Unionism and the Anglo-Irish Agreement. London: Hurst (especially chpt. 5).
  • Bew, Paul (1994) Ideology and the Irish Question: Ulster Unionism and Irish Nationalism. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Boyce, D George and Alan O’Day (eds.) (2001) Defenders of the Union: A Survey of British and Irish Unionism since 1801. London: Routledge.
  • Bruce, Steve (1986) God Save Ulster! The Religion and Politics of Paisleyism. Oxford: Clarendon.
  • Cochrane, Feargal (1997) Unionist Politics and the Politics of Unionism Since the Anglo-Irish Agreement. Cork: Cork University Press.
  • Coogan, Tim Pat (1995) The Troubles: Ireland’s Ordeal 1966-1995 and the Search for Peace. London: Hutchinson.
  • Coulter, Carol (1993) The Hidden Tradition: Feminism, Women and Nationalism in Ireland. Cork: Cork University Press.
  • Coulter, Carol (1998) ‘Feminism and Nationalism in Ireland’, in David Miller (ed.) Rethinking Northern Ireland: Culture, Ideology and Colonialism. London and New York: Longman, pp. 160-178.
  • Dingley, James and Jo Morgan (2005) ‘Job Discrimination in Northern Ireland and the Law in Relation to the Theory of Ethnic Nationalism’, National Identities vol. 7 no. 1, pp. 51-77.
  • Dixon, Paul (2001) Northern Ireland: The Politics of War and Peace. Basingstoke: Palgrave.
  • Dowler, Lorraine (1997) ‘The Mother of all Warriors: Women in West Belfast, Northern Ireland’, in Ronit Lentin (ed.) Gender and Catastrophe. London and New York: Zed Books, pp. 77-90 [available from module extracts webpage].
  • Elliott, M (2000) The Catholics of Ulster: A History. London: Allen Lane.
  • Elliott, Sydney and W D Flackes (1999) Northern Ireland: A Political Directory 1968-1999. Belfast: Blackstaff, 5th edn (this is a helpful reference text).
  • English, Richard and Graham Walker (eds.) (1996) Unionism in Modern Ireland: New Perspectives on Politics and Culture. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
  • English, Richard (1999) ‘The State and Northern Ireland’, in R English and C Townshend (eds.) The State: Historical and Political Dimensions. London: Routledge.
  • Gallagher, Michael (1995) ‘How Many Nations Are There in Ireland?’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 18 no. 4, pp. 715-739.
  • Guelke, Adrian (1988) Northern Ireland: The International Perspective. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.
  • Hennessey, Thomas (1997) A History of Northern Ireland 1920-1996. Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
  • Jarman, Neil and Dominic Bryan (1998) From Riots to Rights: Nationalist Parades in the North of Ireland. Coleraine: Centre for the Study of Conflict, University of Ulster.
  • McAllister, Ian (1982) ‘The Devil, Miracles and the Afterlife: The Political Sociology of Religion in Northern Ireland’, British Journal of Sociology vol. 33 no. 3.
  • McGarry, John and Brendan O’Leary (1995) ‘Five Fallacies: Northern Ireland and the Liabilities of Liberalism’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 18 no. 4, pp. 837-61.
  • McKittrick, David, et al. (1999) Lost Lives: The Stories of the Men, Women and Children Who Died as a Result of the Northern Ireland Troubles. Edinburgh: Mainstream.
  • Mitchell, Claire (2006) Religion, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland: Boundaries of Belonging and Belief. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Mitchell, Paul, Brendan O’Leary and Geoffrey Evans (2001) ‘Northern Ireland: Flanking Extremists Bite the Moderates and Emerge in Their Clothes’, Parliamentary Affairs vol. 54, pp. 725-742.
  • Mitchell, Paul and Rick Wilford (eds.) (1999) Politics in Northern Ireland. Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview Press (various chapters).
  • O’Dowd, Liam (1998) ‘“New Unionism”, British Nationalism and the Prospects for Negotiated Settlement in Northern Ireland’, in David Miller (ed.) Rethinking Northern Ireland: Culture, Ideology and Colonialism. London and New York: Longman, pp. 70-93.
  • Officer, David and Graham Walker (2000) ‘Protestant Ulster: Ethno-history, Memory and Contemporary Prospects’, National Identities vol. 2 no. 3, pp. 293-307.
  • Racioppi, Linda and Katherine O’Sullivan See (2000) ‘Ulstermen and Loyalist Ladies on Parade: Gendering Unionism in Northern Ireland’, International Feminist Journal of Politics vol. 2 no. 1, pp. 1-29.
  • Roberts, H. (1987) ‘“Sound Stupidity”: The British Party System and the Northern Ireland Question’, Government and Opposition vol. 22 no. 3, pp. 315-35. (Reproduced in John McGarry and Brendan O’Leary (eds.) (1990) The Future of Northern Ireland. Oxford: Clarendon.)
  • Rose, Richard (1971) Governing Without Consensus: An Irish Perspective. London: Faber and Faber.
  • Ruane, Joseph and Jennifer Todd (1998) ‘Irish Nationalism and the Conflict in Northern Ireland’, in David Miller (ed.) Rethinking Northern Ireland: Culture, Ideology and Colonialism. London and New York: Longman, pp. 55-69.
  • Sales, Rosemary (1997) Women Divided: Gender, Religion and Politics in Northern Ireland. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Shirlow, Peter and Mark McGovern (eds.) (1997) Who Are “the People”? Unionism, Protestantism and Loyalism in Northern Ireland. London: Pluto (various chapters – particularly introduction, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6).
  • Todd, Jennifer (1987) ‘Two Traditions in Unionist Political Culture’, Irish Political Studies vol. 2, pp. 1-26.
  • Tomlinson, Mike (1998) ‘Walking Backwards into the Sunset: British Policy and the Insecurity of Northern Ireland’, in David Miller (ed.) Rethinking Northern Ireland: Culture, Ideology and Colonialism. London and New York: Longman, pp. 94-122.
  • Ward, Margaret (1989) Unmanageable Revolutionaries: Women and Irish Nationalism. London: Pluto.
  • Ward, Rachel (2002) ‘Invisible Women: The Political Roles of Unionist and Loyalist Women in Contemporary Northern Ireland’, Parliamentary Affairs vol. 55, pp. 167-178.
  • Whyte, John (1990) Interpreting Northern Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Wilson, T (1989) Ulster: Conflict and Consent. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.

Republican Armed Groups

  • Anderson, Brendan (2002) Joe Cahill: A Life in the IRA. Dublin: O’Brien Press.
  • Bell, J Bowyer (1998) The Secret Army: The IRA. Dublin: Poolbeg Press, revised 3rd edn (or various other edns).
  • Coogan, Tim Pat (1995) The IRA. London: HarperCollins Publishers, revised and expanded edn (or other edns).
  • English, Richard (2003) Armed Struggle: The History of the IRA. London: Macmillan (recommended).
  • Guelke, Adrian (1999) ‘Political Violence and the Paramilitaries’, in Paul Mitchell and Rick Wilford (eds.) Politics in Northern Ireland. Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview Press, pp. 29-51.
  • Hayes, Bernadette C and Ian McAllister (2001) ‘Sowing Dragon’s Teeth: Public Support for Political Violence and Paramilitarism in Northern Ireland’, Political Studies vol. 49 no. 5, pp. 901-922.
  • Maloney, Ed (2002) A Secret History of the IRA. London: Penguin Books.
  • McGuire, Maria (1973) To Take Arms: A Year in the Provisional IRA. London: Macmillan.
  • O’Doherty, Malachi (1998) The Trouble with Guns: Republican Strategy and the Provisional IRA. Belfast: Blackstaff.
  • Patterson, Henry (1989) The Politics of Illusion: Republicanism and Socialism in Modern Ireland. London: Hutchinson Radius (chpt. 4).
  • Smith, M L R (1995) Fighting for Ireland? The Military Strategy of the Irish Republican Movement. London: Routledge (chpts 4-7).
  • Taylor, Peter (1997) Provos: The IRA and Sinn Fein. London: Bloomsbury [accompanying documentary of the same name also available to borrow on video].
  • Taylor, Peter (2001) Brits: The War against the IRA. London: Bloomsbury.

Loyalist Armed Groups

  • Boulton, David (1973) The UVF 1966-73: An Anatomy of Loyalist Rebellion. Dublin: Gill and Macmillan.
  • Bruce, Steve (1992) The Red Hand: Protestant Paramilitaries in Northern Ireland. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Bruce, Steve (1999) ‘The State and Pro-state Terrorism in Ireland’, in R English and C Townshend (eds.) The State: Historical and Political Dimensions. London: Routledge.
  • Bruce, Steve (1992) ‘The Problems of “Pro-State” Terrorism: Loyalist Paramilitaries in Northern Ireland’, Terrorism and Political Violence vol. 4 no. 1, pp. 67-88.
  • Crawford, Colin (2003) Inside the UDA: Volunteers and Violence. London: Pluto.
  • Guelke, Adrian (1999) ‘Political Violence and the Paramilitaries’, in Paul Mitchell and Rick Wilford (eds.) Politics in Northern Ireland. Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview Press, pp. 29-51.
  • Hayes, Bernadette C and Ian McAllister (2001) ‘Sowing Dragon’s Teeth: Public Support for Political Violence and Paramilitarism in Northern Ireland’, Political Studies vol. 49 no. 5, pp. 901-922.
  • Nelson, Sarah (1984) Ulster’s Uncertain Defenders: Protestant Political, Paramilitary and Community Groups and the Northern Ireland Conflict. Belfast: Appletree.
  • Taylor, Peter (2000) Loyalists. London: Bloomsbury [accompanying documentary of the same name also available to borrow on video from the library].

Political Prisoners

  • Aretxaga, Begoña (1995) ‘Dirty Protest: Symbolic Overdetermination and Gender in Northern Ireland Ethnic Violence’, Ethos vol. 23 no. 2, pp. 123-148.
  • Beresford, David (1987) Ten Men Dead: The Story of the 1981 Irish Hunger Strike. London: Grafton.
  • Campbell, Brian, Laurence McKeown and Felim O’Hagan (eds.) (1994) Nor Meekly Serve My Time: The H-Block Struggle, 1976-1981. Belfast : Beyond the Pale.
  • Coogan, Tim Pat (1980) On the Blanket: The H Block Story. Dublin: War River.
  • Coogan, Tim Pat (1995) The Troubles: Ireland’s Ordeal 1966-1995 and the Search for Peace. London: Hutchinson (chpt. 9).
  • Crawford, Colin (1999) Defenders or Criminals? Loyalist Prisoners and Criminalisation. Belfast: Blackstaff.
  • D’Arcy, Margaretta (1981) Tell Them Everything: A Sojourn in the Prison of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II at Ard Macha (Armagh). London: Pluto.
  • Loughram, C (1986) ‘Armagh and Feminist Strategy: Campaigns Around Republican Women Prisoners in Armagh Gaol’, Feminist Review vol. 23 June.
  • O’Malley, Padraig (1990) Biting at the Grave: The Irish Hunger Strikes and the Politics of Despair. Boston: Beacon Press.
  • Sands, Bobby (1998) Writings from Prison. Cork: Mercier Press.


Term 1, Week 4 Lecture/Week 5 Seminar

The Former Yugoslavia

Seminar Questions:

  • Explain the disintegration of Yugoslavia and the onset of violent conflict.
  • What role did the assumption of a link between territory and identity play in the wars?

Core Reading

  • Bennett, C (1995) Yugoslavia’s Bloody Collapse. Hurst & Co.
  • Cohen, L J (1995) Broken Bonds: Yugoslavia’s Disintegration and Balkan Politics in Transition. Boulder: Westview Press, 2nd edn.
  • Dyker, D and I Vejvoda (eds.) (1997) Yugoslavia and After: A Study of Fragmentation, Despair and Rebirth. London: Longman.
  • Glenny, Misha (1999) The Balkans 1804-1999: Nationalism, War and the Great Powers. London: Granta.
  • Oberschall, Anthony (2000) ‘The Manipulation of Ethnicity: From Ethnic Cooperation to Violence and War in Yugoslavia’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 23 no. 6, pp. 982-1001. (Draws on different theories of ethnic conflict and examines them in relation to Yugoslavia.)
  • Pavković, Aleksandar (1996) The Fragmentation of Yugoslavia: Nationalism in a Multinational State.
  • Ramet, Sabrina P (1999) Balkan Babel: The Disintegration of Yugoslavia from the Death of Tito to the War for Kosovo. Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview, 3rd edn.
  • Stitkovac, E (2000) ‘Croatia: The First War’ AND Udovicki, J and E Štitkovac, ‘Bosnia and Hercegovina: The Second War’, both in J Udovicki and J Ridgeway (eds.) Burn This House: The Making and Unmaking of Yugoslavia. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, rev. and exp. edn (see also other chapters in this book).

Supplementary Reading

  • Bose, Sumantra (1995) ‘State Crises and Nationalities Conflict in Sri Lanka and Yugoslavia’, Comparative Political Studies vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 87-116.
  • Blackburn, R (1993) ‘The Break-up of Yugoslavia and the Fate of Bosnia’, New Left Review vol. 199, pp. 100-119.
  • Bowman, G (1994) ‘Xenophobia, Fantasy and the Nation: The Logic of Ethnic Violence in Former Yugoslavia’ in V A Goddard, J R Llobera and C Shore (eds.) The Anthropology of Europe: Identity and Boundaries in Conflict. Oxford: Berg, pp.143-172.
  • Bracewell, Wendy (1996) ‘Women, Motherhood, and Contemporary Serbian Nationalism’, Women’s Studies International Forum vol. 19 nos. 1-2, pp. 25-33.
  • Campbell, D (1998) National Deconstruction: Violence, Identity, and Justice in Bosnia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Chandler, D (2000) Bosnia: Faking Democracy After Dayton. London: Pluto, 2nd edn.
  • Chossudovsky, Michel (1997) ‘Dismantling Former Yugoslavia, Recolonising Bosnia’, Development in Practice, vol. 7 no. 4, pp. 375-383.
  • Cigar, N (1996) ‘The Serbo-Croatian War, 1991’, in S Mestrović (ed.) Genocide After Emotion: The Postemotional Balkan War. London: Routledge.
  • Cigar, N (1995) Genocide in Bosnia: The Policy of “Ethnic Cleansing”. College Station: Texas A&M University Press.
  • Crawford, Beverly (1998) ‘Explaining Cultural Conflict in Ex-Yugoslavia: Institutional Weakness, Economic Crisis, and Identity Politics’, in Beverly Crawford and Ronnie D Lipschutz (eds.) The Myth of “Ethnic Conflict”: Politics, Economics, and “Cultural” Violence. Berkeley: University of California, pp. 197-260.
  • Denich, Bette (1994) ‘Dismembering Yugoslavia: Nationalist Ideologies and the Symbolic Revival of Genocide’, American Ethnologist vol. 21 no. 2, pp. 367-390.
  • Denich, Bette (1993) ‘Unmaking Multi-ethnicity in Yugoslavia: Metamorphosis Observed’, Anthropology of East Europe Review vol. 11 nos. 1-2, pp. 43-53 [available from: http://condor.depaul.edu/~rrotenbe/aeer/aeer11_1/denich.html].
  • Denitch, Bogdan (1994) Ethnic Nationalism: The Tragic Death of Yugoslavia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Doder, D (1993) ‘Yugoslavia: New War, Old Hatreds’, Foreign Policy vol. 91, pp. 3-23.
  • Frye, T M (1992) ‘Ethnicity, Sovereignty and Transitions from Non-Democratic Rule’, Journal of International Affairs vol. 45 no. 2, pp. 599-623.
  • Gagnon, V P (1994/95) ‘Ethnic Nationalism and International Conflict: The Case of Serbia’, International Security vol.19 no.3, pp. 13-166.
  • Glenny, Misha (1992) The Fall of Yugoslavia: The Third Balkan War. London: Penguin.
  • Gow, J (1991) ‘Deconstructing Yugoslavia’, Survival vol. 33 July/August, pp. 291-311.
  • Hayden, Robert M (1996) ‘Imagined Communities and Real Victims: Self-Determination and Ethnic-Cleansing in Yugoslavia’, American Ethnologist vol. 23 no. 4, pp.783-801.
  • Jones, Adam (1994) ‘Gender and Ethnic Conflict in Ex-Yugoslavia’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 17 no. 1, pp. 115-134.
  • Judah, Tim (1997) The Serbs: History, Myth and the Destruction of Yugoslavia. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Kaldor, M (1993) ‘Yugoslavia and the New Nationalism’, New Left Review vol. 197, pp. 96-112.
  • Korać, Maja (1996) ‘Understanding Ethnic-National Identity and its Meaning: Questions from Women’s Experience’, Women’s Studies International Forum vol. 19 nos. 1-2, pp. 133-143. (On ethno-national identity in Yugoslavia, arguing for a deconstruction of ethno-national identity.)
  • Lilly, Carol S and Jill A Irvine (2002) ‘Negotiating Interests: Women and Nationalism in Serbia and Croatia, 1990-1997’, East European Politics and Societies vol. 16 no. 1, pp. 109-144.
  • Magaš, Branka (1993) The Destruction of Yugoslavia: Tracking the Break-up 1980-92. London: Verso.
  • Malcom, Noel (2002) Bosnia: A Short History. London: Pan (and earlier edns).
  • Mazowiecki, Tadeusz (1993) Report on the Situation of Human Rights in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia: Annex II: Report of the Team of Experts on Their Mission to Investigate Allegations of Rape in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia from 12 to 23 January 1993. E/CN.4/1993/50, United Nations Economic and Social Council: Commission on Human Rights, 10 February [available from: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/TestFrame/c0a6cfd5274508fd802567900036da9a?Opendocument].
  • Mennecke, Martin and Eric Markusen (2004) ‘Bosnia and Herzegovina’, in Samuel Totten, William S Parsons and Israel W Charny (eds.) Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. New York: Routledge.
  • Pajic, Z (1995) ‘Bosnia-Hercegovina’, in Payam Akhavan and Robert Howse (eds.) Yugoslavia, the Former and Future: Reflections by Scholars from the Region. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.
  • Pearson, R (1992) ‘The Geopolitics of People Power: The Pursuit of the Nation-State in East Central Europe’, Journal of International Affairs vol. 45 no. 2, pp. 499-518.
  • Popovski, Vesna (1995) ‘Yugoslavia: Politics, Federation, Nation’, in G Smith (ed.) Federalism: The Multiethnic Challenge. London: Longman, pp. 180-207.
  • Pratt, J C (2000) ‘Commentary: Economic Change, Ethnic Relations and the Disintegration of Yugoslavia’, Regional Studies vol. 34 no. 8, pp.769-775.
  • Roe, Paul (2004) ‘Which Security Dilemma? Mitigating Ethnic Conflict: The Case of Croatia’, Security Studies, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 280-313.
  • Schopflin, George (1993) ‘The Rise and Fall of Yugoslavia’ in John McGarry and Brendan O’Leary (eds.) The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation: Case Studies of Protracted Ethnic Conflicts. London: Routledge.
  • Sells, Michael A (1998) The Bridge Betrayed: Religion and Genocide in Bosnia. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • Semelin, J (2003) ‘Analysis of a Mass Crime: Ethnic Cleansing in the Former Yugoslavia 1991-1999’, in R Gellately and B Kiernan (eds.) The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Silber, L and A Little (1995) The Death of Yugoslavia. London: Penguin [see also the accompanying the BBC documentary series of the same name, which can be borrowed from the library].
  • Slack, J Andrew and Roy R Doydon (2001) ‘Population Dynamics and Susceptibility for Ethnic Conflict: The Case of Bosnia and Herzegovina’, Journal of Peace Research vol. 38 no. 2, pp. 139-161.
  • Todorova, Maria (1997) Imagining the Balkans. New York: Oxford University Press (chpt. 6).
  • Woodward, Susan (1995) Balkan Tragedy: Chaos and Dissolution after the Cold War. Washington, DC: Brookings Institute.
  • Zametica, John (1992) The Yugoslav Conflict: An Analysis of the Causes of the Yugoslav War, the Policies of the Republics and the Regional and International Implications of the Conflict. London: Brassey’s for IISS (Adelphi Paper 270, in the Pamphlets section of library).


Term 1, Week 5 Lecture/Week 7 Seminar

Rwanda

Seminar Questions:

  • Discuss the role of colonial history in the politics of Rwanda.
  • What factors led to the 1994 genocide in Rwanda?

Core Reading

  • Clapham, C (1998) ‘Rwanda: The Perils of Peacemaking’, Journal of Peace Research, vol. 35 no. 2, pp. 193-210. (Looks at international conflict resolution intervention and the Arusha accords as factors contributing to the 1994 genocide.)
  • Destexhe, Alain (1995) Rwanda and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. London: Pluto Press.
  • Hintjens, Helen M (1999) ‘Explaining the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda’, Journal of Modern African Studies, vol. 37 no. 2, pp. 241–286.
  • Mamdani, Mahmood (2002) When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, chpts 2-4.
  • Prunier, Gerard (1997) The Rwanda Crisis: History of a Genocide. London: Hurst, new edn.
  • Storey, A (1999) ‘Economics and Ethnic Conflict: Structural Adjustment in Rwanda’, Development Policy Review, vol. 17 no. 1, pp.43-63.
  • Uvin, Peter (1997) ‘Prejudice, Crisis and Genocide in Rwanda’, African Studies Review, vol. 40 no. 2, pp. 91-115.

Supplementary Reading

  • Adelman, Howard & Suhrke, Astri (eds.) (2000) The Path of a Genocide: The Rwanda Crisis from Uganda to Zaire. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers, chpts 2, 4-5, 7, 11.
  • African Rights (1995a) Rwanda: Death, Despair and Defiance. London: African Rights.
  • African Rights (1995b) Rwanda – Not So Innocent: When Women Become Killers. London: African Rights [email me for an electronic copy].
  • Byrne, Bridget, Rachael Marcus and Tanya Powers-Stevens (1995) Gender, Conflict and Development (Volume 2 Case Studies: Cambodia, Rwanda, Kosova, Somalia, Algeria, Guatemala and Eritrea). Brighton: Institute of Development Studies.
  • Des Forges, Alison (2004) ‘Leave None to Tell the Story’: Genocide in Rwanda. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2nd edn [available from HRW website: http://www.hrw.org/reports/1999/rwanda/].
  • Destexhe, Alain (1994-5) ‘The Third Genocide’, Foreign Policy vol. 97 Winter, pp. 3-17.
  • Elbadawi, I and N Sambanis (2000) ‘Why are There so Many Civil Wars in Africa? Understanding and Preventing Violent Conflict’, Journal of African Economies, vol. 9 no. 3, pp.244 – 269.
  • Gourevitch, Philip (1999) We Wish to Inform You That Tomorrow We Will be Killed With Our Families: Stories From Rwanda. London: Picador.
  • Igwara, Obi (ed.) (1995) Ethnic Hatred: Genocide in Rwanda. London: ASEN.
  • Jones, Adam (2002) ‘Gender and Genocide in Rwanda’, Journal of Genocide Research vol. 4 no. 1, pp. 65-94.
  • Kinzer, Stephen (2008) A Thousand Hills: Rwanda's Rebirth and the Man Who Dreamed It. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. (Populist biography of President Paul Kagame. Arguably overly optimistic about Rwanda’s current state and about Kagame.)
  • Klinghoffer, A J (1998) The International Dimension of Genocide in Rwanda. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
  • Lemarchand, Ren (2004) ‘The Rwandan Genocide’, in Samuel Totten, William S Parsons and Israel W Charny (eds.) Century of Genocide: Critical Essays and Eyewitness Accounts. New York: Routledge.
  • Mackintosh, Anne (1997) ‘Rwanda: Beyond “Ethnic Conflict”’, Development in Practice, vol. 7 no. 4, pp. 464-474. (Mackintosh was Oxfam’s regional representative in Rwanda.)
  • Mackintosh, Anne (1996) ‘The International Response to Conflict and Genocide: Lessons from the Rwanda Experience’, Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 334-342.
  • Magnarella, Paul J (2005) ‘The Background and Causes of the Genocide in Rwanda’, Journal of International Criminal Justice vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 801-822.
  • Melson, R (2003) ‘Modern Genocide in Rwanda: Ideology, Revolution, War and Mass Murder in an African State’, in R Gellately and B Kiernan (eds.) The Specter of Genocide: Mass Murder in Historical Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Melvern, Linda (2006) Conspiracy to Murder: The Rwandan Genocide. London: Verso, rev. edn.
  • Melvern, Linda (2000) A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide. London: Zed.
  • Mukimbiri, Jean (2005), ‘The Seven Stages of the Rwandan Genocide’, Journal of International Criminal Justice vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 823-836.
  • Pottier, Johan (2002) Re-imagining Rwanda: Conflict, Survival and Disinformation in the Late 20th Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Reyntjens, F (1996) ‘Rwanda: Genocide and Beyond’, Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 240-251.
  • Sharlach, Lisa (1999) ‘Gender and Genocide in Rwanda: Women as Agents and Objects of Genocide’, Journal of Genocide Research vol. 1 no. 3, pp. 387-399.
  • Storey, Andy (1997) ‘Non-Neutral Humanitarianism: NGOs and the Rwanda Crisis’, Development in Practice, vol. 7 no. 4, pp. 384-394.
  • Taylor, Christopher C (1999) Sacrifice as Terror: The Rwandan Genocide of 1994. Oxford: Berg (chpts 1- 2). (Useful for exploring the colonial racial ideas brought to Rwanda and their impact on later conflict.)
  • Uvin, Peter (1998) Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda. Kumarian Press.
  • Waller, David (1996) Rwanda: Which Way Now? Oxford: Oxfam, 2nd edn.


Term 1, Week 7 Lecture/Week 8 Seminar

Ethnicity, Nations and Nationalisms

Seminar Questions:

  • Debate the principle conceptual approaches to understanding ethnicity and nationalism and the relationship between them. What do you find most convincing?
  • Is ethnic nationalism ‘bad nationalism’?

Core Reading

  • Clark, Colin (2011) ‘The Nation-State: Civic and Ethnic Dimensions’, in K Cordell and S Wolff (eds) Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 44-54.
  • Connor, Walker (1994) Ethnonationalism: The Quest for Understanding. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (chpt. 8). First published as (1993) ‘Beyond Reason: The Nature of the Ethnonational Bond’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 16 no. 3. (Significant scholar who largely takes a primordial or perennial approach. Chpt. 8 looks at the emotional nature of ethno-national identity.)
  • Horowitz, Donald (2002) ‘The Primordialists’, in Daniele Conversi (ed.) Ethnonationalism in the Contemporary World: Walker Connor and the Study of Nationalism. London: Routledge [available from module extracts webpage]. (Critique and partial defence of the primordial approach.)
  • Jackson-Preece, Jennifer (2011) ‘Origins of “Nations”: Contested Beginnings, Contested Futures’, in K Cordell and S Wolff (eds) Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 15-25.
  • Özkirimli, Umut (2000) Theories of Nationalism: A Critical Introduction. Basingstoke: Palgrave. (Excellent introduction to key theoretical debates in the field – recommended.)
  • Smith, Anthony D (2000) The Nation in History: Historiographical Debates About Ethnicity and Nationalism. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England (small volume with useful critique of key debates over primordialism, perennialism, modernism, and social constructionism) OR (1998) Nationalism and Modernism: A Critical Survey of Recent Theories of Nations. London: Routledge. (Discusses the modernist paradigm in theorising nations and nationalism; primordialism and perennialism; ethno-symbolism; and postmodern analyses. Whole book is very useful but the introduction and conclusion are helpful starting points. Significant scholar who takes an ethno-symbolic approach to nations/nationalism.)
  • Wolff, Stefan (2006) Ethnic Conflict: A Global Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press (chpt. 2).

Supplementary Reading

General

  • (1991) ‘Reimagining the Nation’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies, vol. 20 Winter (special issue of this journal with various relevant articles).
  • Alter, P (1994) Nationalism. London: Edward Arnold (chpts 1-2).
  • Anderson, Benedict (1991) Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso, 2nd edn (chpts 1-3). (Significant scholar who takes a modernist approach to nations/nationalism, particularly emphasising the role of the growth of capitalism and the spread of print media in developing nationalism.)
  • Balakrishnan, Gopal (ed.) (1996) Mapping the Nation. London: Verso/New Left Review (particularly chpts 4 and 5).
  • Bauman, Zygmunt (1992), ‘Soil, blood and identity’, The Sociological Review vol. 40 no. 4, pp. 675-701.
  • Ben-Israel, H (1992) ‘Nationalism in Historical Perspective’, Journal of International Affairs vol. 45 no. 2, pp. 367-397.
  • Bhabha, H (ed.) (1990) Nation and Narration. London: Routledge.
  • Bowden, Brett (2003) ‘Nationalism and Cosmopolitanism: Irreconcilable Differences or Possible Bedfellows?’, National Identities vol. 5 no. 3, pp. 235-249.
  • Breuilly, John (1993) Nationalism and the State. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2nd edn. (Significant scholar who takes a modernist approach to nations/nationalism.)
  • Calhoun, Craig (1997) Nationalism. Buckingham: Open University Press (chpts 1-3). (Discusses the primordialist versus instrumentalist/constructivist debate; nationalism and modernity; and nationalist uses of history.)
  • Chatterjee, Partha (1993) The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. (Significant scholar of nationalism and the colonial/postcolonial world.)
  • Chatterjee, Partha (1986) Nationalist Thought and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse? London: Zed (chpt. 1).
  • Conversi, Daniele (2002) ‘Resisting Primordialism and Other –isms: In Lieu of Conclusions’, in Daniele Conversi (ed.) Ethnonationalism in the Contemporary World: Walker Connor and the Study of Nationalism. London: Routledge [available from module extracts webpage].
  • Douglass, W (1988) ‘A Critique of Recent Trends in the Analysis of Ethnonationalism’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 11, pp. 192-206.
  • Eller, J D and R M Coughlan (1993) ‘The Poverty of Primordialism: The Demystification of Ethnic Attachments’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 16 no. 2, pp.183-202 [available from module extracts webpage]. READ WITH Grosby.
  • Eriksen, Thomas Hylland (2002) Ethnicity and Nationalism: Anthropological Perspectives. London: Pluto Press, 2nd edn.
  • Eriksen, T H (1991) ‘Ethnicity versus Nationalism’, Journal of Peace Research vol. 28 July, pp. 263-278.
  • Fenton, Steve (2003) Ethnicity. Cambridge: Polity (chpts 4-5 on primordialism vs. instrumentalism).
  • Fox, Jonathan (2003) ‘Nationalism versus Civilisations: An Assessment of Alternate Theories on the Future of Ethnic Identity and Conflict’, National Identities vol. 5 no. 3, pp. 283-307.
  • Gellner, Ernest (1983) Nations and Nationalism. Oxford: Blackwell. (Significant scholar who takes a modernist approach to nations/nationalism.)
  • Grosby, S (1994) ‘The Verdict of History: The Inexpungeable Tie of Primordiality – A Response to Eller and Coughlan’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 17 no. 1, pp. 164-171 [available from module extracts webpage]. (Primordialist vs. instrumentalist debate on the nature of ethnicity and ethnic attachments.) READ WITH Eller & Coughlan.
  • Guibernau, Montserrat and John Hutchinson (eds.) (2001) Understanding Nationalism. Cambridge: Polity (chpts by scholars representing different approaches to the study of nationalism – see esp. introduction and chpts by Smith, Breuilly, Hutchinson, and Yuval-Davis).
  • Guibernau, Montserrat and John Rex (eds.) (1997) The Ethnicity Reader: Nationalism, Multiculturalism and Migration. Oxford: Polity (Part 1: Ethnicity and Nationalism).
  • Guibernau, Montserrat (1996) Nationalisms: The Nation State and Nationalism in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Hall, J A (1993) ‘Nationalisms: Classified and Explained’, Daedalus vol. 122 no. 3, pp. 1-28.
  • Hall, John A (1998) The State of the Nation: Ernest Gellner and the Theory of Nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hall, Stuart (1992) ‘The Question of Cultural Identity’, in S Hall and T McGrew (eds.) Modernity and Its Futures. Cambridge: Polity Press.
  • Hall, Stuart and Paul du Gay (eds.) (1996) Questions of Cultural Identity. London: Sage.
  • Hobsbawm, Eric J (1992) Nations and Nationalism Since 1780. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2nd edn. (Significant scholar who takes a modernist approach to nations/nationalism.)
  • Horowitz, Donald (2000) Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2nd edn (chpts 1-2).
  • Hutchinson, John and Anthony Smith (eds.) (1994) Nationalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press (part II ‘Theories of Nationalism’ and part III ‘The Rise of Nations’). (Short extracts by key scholars of nationalism.)
  • Hutchinson, John and Anthony Smith (eds.) (1996) Ethnicity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Jenkins, Richard (1994) ‘Rethinking Ethnicity: Identity, Categorization and Power’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 17 no. 2, pp. 197-223.
  • Jenkins, Richard (1997) Rethinking Ethnicity: Arguments and Explorations. London: Sage.
  • Kellas, James G (1998) The Politics of Nationalism and Ethnicity. Basingstoke: Macmillan, 2nd edn. (Quite a primordialist approach.)
  • Kreuzer, Peter (2006) ‘Violent Civic Nationalism versus Civil Ethnic Nationalism: Contrasting Indonesia and Malay(si)a’, National Identities vol. 8 no. 1, pp. 41-59.
  • Lake, David A and Donald Rothchild (1998) ‘Spreading Fear: The Genesis of Transnational Ethnic Conflict’, in David A Lake and Donald Rothchild (eds.) The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict: Fear, Diffusion, and Escalation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 3-32. (For the distinction between primordialism, instrumentalism and constructivism.)
  • McKay, James (1982) ‘An Exploratory Synthesis of Primordial and Mobilizationist Approaches to Ethnic Phenomena’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 5, pp. 395-420. (Primordial vs. instrumentalist (which he calls ‘mobilizationist’) debate – argues that the two approaches can be reconciled in terms of describing empirical situations of ethnic solidarity.)
  • Mlinar, Z (ed.) (1992) Globalization and Territorial Identities. Aldershot: Avebury, 1992.
  • Nagel, J (1983-84) ‘The Ethnic Revolution: The Emergence of Ethnic Nationalism in Modern States’, Sociology and Social Research vol. 68 no. 4, pp. 417-434.
  • Nairn, Tom (1997) Faces of Nationalism. London: Verso. (Significant scholar who takes a modernist approach to nations/nationalism.)
  • Olzak, Susan (1998) ‘Ethnic Protest in Core and Periphery States’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 21 no. 2, pp. 187-217.
  • Pearson, R (1992) ‘The Geopolitics of People Power: The Pursuit of the Nation-State in East Central Europe’, Journal of International Affairs vol. 45 no. 2, pp. 499-518.
  • Phadnis, Urmila and Rajat Ganguly (2001) Ethnicity and Nation-building in South Asia. New Delhi: Sage, rev. edn (chpts 1-2).
  • Plamenatz, John (1976), ‘Two Types of Nationalism’, in Eugene Kamenka (ed.) Nationalism: The Nature and Evolution of an Idea. London: Edward Arnold.
  • Rex, John (1986) Race and Ethnicity. Buckingham: Open University Press (chpts 1-2 and 5).
  • Rex, John and David Mason (eds.) Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Schopflin, George and Geoffrey Hosking (1997) Myths and Nationhood. London: C. Hurst.
  • Scott, G M (1990) ‘A Resynthesis of the Primordial and Circumstantial Approaches to Ethnic Group Solidarity: Towards an Explanatory Model’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 13 no. 2, pp. 147-171. (Theoretical model to explain ethnic movements, which combines both primordial and instrumentalist (which he calls ‘circumstantial’) approaches.)
  • Smith, Anthony D (2002) ‘Dating the Nation’, in Daniele Conversi (ed.) Ethnonationalism in the Contemporary World: Walker Connor and the Study of Nationalism. London: Routledge.
  • Smith, Anthony D (1996) ‘Culture, Community and Territory: The Politics of Ethnicity and Nationalism’, International Affairs, vol. 72 no. 3, pp. 445-458.
  • Smith, Anthony D (1995) Nations and Nationalism in a Global Era. Cambridge: Polity.
  • Smith, Anthony D (1993) ‘The Ethnic Sources of Nationalism’, in M E Brown (ed.) Ethnic Conflict and International Security. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Smith, Anthony D (1991) National Identity. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Smith, Anthony D (1990) ‘The Supersession of Nationalism?’, International Journal of Comparative Sociology vol. 31 January-April, pp. 1-31.
  • Smith, Anthony D (1988) ‘The Myth of the “Modern Nation” and Myths of Nations’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 11 no. 1, pp. 1-26.
  • Smith, Anthony D (1986) The Ethnic Origins of Nations. Oxford: Basil Blackwell (chpts 2-6).
  • Smith, Anthony D (1986) ‘State-Making and Nation Building’, in John Hall (ed.) States in History. Oxford: Basil Blackwell.
  • Thompson, Richard H (1989) Theories of Ethnicity: A Critical Appraisal. New York: Greenwood Press (especially chpt. 3).
  • van den Berghe, Pierre L (1990) ‘Introduction’, in Pierre L van den Berghe (ed.) State Violence and Ethnicity. Niwot, CO: University Press of Colorado.
  • Welsh, David (1993) in M E Brown (ed.) Ethnic Conflict and International Security. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Young, Crawford (2002) ‘Explaining the Conflict Potential of Ethnicity’, in J Darby and R MacGinty (eds.) Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 9-18. (Brief but useful introduction to the field.)

Religion and Nationalism/Ethnicity

  • Antoun, R T and M E Hegland (eds.) (1987) Religious Resurgence: Contemporary Cases in Islam, Christianity and Judaism. New York: Syracuse University Press.
  • Enloe, Cynthia (1980) ‘Religion and Ethnicity’, in P. Sugar (ed.) Ethnic Diversity and Conflict in Eastern Europe. Santa Barbara: ABC-Clio (also short extract in Hutchinson and Smith’s Ethnicity reader, pp. 197-202).
  • Geertz, Clifford (1963) ‘The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in New States’, in Clifford Geertz (ed.) Old Societies and New States. New York. (Significant scholar who takes a primordialist approach.)
  • Gellner, Ernest (1994) ‘The Sacred and the National’, chpt. 5 in Gellner’s Encounters with Nationalism. Oxford: Basil Blackwell (note this chpt. is a review of Conor Cruise O’Brien’s book).
  • Juergensmeyer, Mark (1991) Violence and the Sacred in the Modern World. London: Cass.
  • Juergensmeyer, Mark (1993) The New Cold War? Religious Nationalism Confronts the Secular State. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
  • O’Brien, Conor Cruise (1988) God Land: Reflections on Religion and Nationalism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Sahliyeh, E (1990) ‘Religious Resurgence and Political Modernization’, in E Sahliyeh (ed.) Religious Resurgence and Politics in the Contemporary World. New York: State University of New York Press.
  • Smith, Anthony (1992) ‘Chosen Peoples: Why Ethnic Groups Survive’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 15 no. 3, pp.436-56.


Term 1, Week 8 Lecture/Week 9 Seminar

Gender and Nationalism

Seminar Questions:

  • What are the main elements of theories about gender and nationalism?
  • How have gender and nationalism intersected in our case study conflicts?
  • What are some of the opportunities and constraints facing women who participate in nationalist movements?

Core Reading

  • Alison, Miranda (2009) Women and Political Violence: Female Combatants in Ethno-national Conflict. London: Routledge (chpt. 3).
  • Anthias, Floya and Nira Yuval-Davis (1989) ‘Introduction’, in N Yuval-Davis and F Anthias (eds.) Woman-Nation-State. Basingstoke: Macmillan [available from module extracts webpage]. (Seminal piece later expanded upon in Yuval-Davis’s Gender & Nation book, listed below.)
  • Enloe, Cynthia (2000) Bananas, Beaches and Bases: Making Feminist Sense of International Politics. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, updated edn [first pub. 1989] (chpt. 3). (Significant scholar of gender and international politics.)
  • Jayawardena, Kumari (1985) Feminism and Nationalism in the Third World. London: Zed Books. (Seminal work changing perspectives on feminism in anti-colonial movements.)
  • Kandiyoti, Deniz (1991) ‘Identity and its Discontents: Women and the Nation’, Millennium: Journal of International Studies vol. 20 no. 3, pp. 429-443.
  • Nagel, Joane (1998) ‘Masculinity and Nationalism: Gender and Sexuality in the Making of Nations’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 21 no. 2, pp. 242-269. (Examines historical and modern connection between manhood and nationhood.)
  • Wilford, Rick (1998) ‘Women, Ethnicity and Nationalism: Surveying the Ground’, in R Wilford and R Miller (eds.) Women, Ethnicity and Nationalism. London: Routledge, pp. 1-22. (Useful overview.)
  • Yuval-Davis, Nira (1997) Gender & Nation. London: Sage. (Significant leading scholar of gender and nationalism.)

Supplementary Reading

  • Abdo, Nahla (1994) ‘Nationalism and Feminism: Palestinian Women and the Intifada – No Going Back?’, in Valentine M Moghadam (ed.) Gender and National Identity: Women and Politics in Muslim Societies. London: Zed Books, pp. 148-170.
  • Allen, Sheila (1998) ‘Identity: Feminist Perspectives on “Race”, Ethnicity and Nationality’, in N Charles and H Hintjens (eds.) Gender, Ethnicity and Political Ideologies. London: Routledge, pp. 46-64.
  • Bracewell, Wendy (1996) ‘Women, Motherhood, and Contemporary Serbian Nationalism’, Women’s Studies International Forum vol. 19 nos. 1-2, pp. 25-33.
  • Charles, Nickie and Helen Hintjens (1998) ‘Gender, Ethnicity and Cultural Identity: Women’s “Places”’, in N Charles and H Hintjens (eds.) Gender, Ethnicity and Political Ideologies. London: Routledge, pp. 1-26.
  • Chatterjee, Partha (1990) ‘The Nationalist Resolution of the Women’s Question’, in Kumkum Sangari and Sudesh Vaid (eds.) Recasting Women. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press.
  • Chinchilla, Norma Stoltz (1997) ‘Nationalism, Feminism, and Revolution in Central America’, in Lois A West (ed.) Feminist Nationalism. New York and London: Routledge, pp. 201-219.
  • Cockburn, Cynthia (1998) The Space Between Us: Negotiating Gender and National Identities in Conflict. London: Zed Books.
  • Coulter, Carol (1993) The Hidden Tradition: Feminism, Women and Nationalism in Ireland. Cork: Cork University Press.
  • Davies, Miranda (1983) Third World. Second Sex: Women’s Struggles and National Liberation. London: Zed Books (Part II).
  • de Alwis, Malathi (2003) ‘Reflections on Gender and Ethnicity in Sri Lanka’, in Wenona Giles et al. (eds.) Feminists Under Fire: Exhanges across War Zones. Toronto: Between the Lines, pp. 15-23.
  • de Mel, Neloufer (2001) Women & the Nation’s Narrative: Gender and Nationalism in Twentieth Century Sri Lanka. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association.
  • Enloe, Cynthia (1993) The Morning After: Sexual Politics at the End of the Cold War. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press (chpt. 8).
  • Enloe, Cynthia (1998) ‘All the Men Are in the Militias, All the Women Are Victims: The Politics of Masculinity and Femininity in Nationalist Wars’, in Lois Ann Lorentsen and Jennifer Turpin (eds.) The Women and War Reader. New York: New York University Press, pp. 50-62.
  • Gilliam, Angela (1991) ‘Women’s Equality and National Liberation’, in Chandra Talpade Mohanty, Ann Russo and Lourdes Torres (eds.) Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, pp. 215-236.
  • Gluck, Sherna Berger (1997) ‘Shifting Sands: The Feminist-Nationalist Connection in the Palestinian Movement’, in Lois A West (ed.) Feminist Nationalism. New York and London: Routledge, pp. 101-129.
  • Joshi, Pushpa (1988) Gandhi on Women: Collection of Mahatma Gandhi’s Writings and Speeches on Women. New Delhi: Centre for Women’s Development Studies.
  • Kandiyoti, Deniz (1991) Women, Islam and the State. Basingstoke: Macmillan (mainly the introduction).
  • Kimble, Judy and Elaine Unterhalter (1982) ‘We Opened the Road for You, You Must Go Forward: ANC Women’s Struggles 1912-1982’, Feminist Review vol. 12.
  • Kimble, Judy (1981) ‘The Struggle Within the Struggle’, Feminist Review vol. 8.
  • Knežević, Djuradja (2003) ‘Gender and Nationalism in the Croatian Media War’, in Wenona Giles et al. (eds.) Feminists Under Fire: Exhanges across War Zones. Toronto: Between the Lines, pp. 75-83.
  • Korać, Maja (1996) ‘Understanding Ethnic-National Identity and its Meaning: Questions from Women’s Experience’, Women’s Studies International Forum vol. 19 nos. 1-2, pp. 133-143. (On ethno-national identity in Yugoslavia, arguing for a deconstruction of ethno-national identity.)
  • Lilly, Carol S and Jill A Irvine (2002) ‘Negotiating Interests: Women and Nationalism in Serbia and Croatia, 1990-1997’, East European Politics and Societies vol. 16 no. 1, pp. 109-144.
  • Loughram, C (1986) ‘Armagh and Feminist Strategy: Campaigns Around Republican Women Prisoners in Armagh Gaol’, Feminist Review vol. 23 June.
  • Mangaliso, Zengie A (1997) ‘Gender and Nation-Building in South Africa’, in Lois A West (ed.) Feminist Nationalism. New York: Routledge, pp. 130-144.
  • Maunaguru, Sitralega (1995) ‘Gendering Tamil Nationalism: The Construction of “Woman” in Projects of Protest and Control’, in Pradeep Jeganathan and Qadri Ismail (eds.) Unmaking the Nation: The Politics of Identity and History in Modern Sri Lanka. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association, pp. 158-175.
  • McClintock, Anne (1997) ‘“No Longer in a Future Heaven”: Gender, Race, and Nationalism’, in A McClintock, A Mufti and E Shohat (eds.) Dangerous Liaisons: Gender, Nation, and Postcolonial Perspectives. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, pp. 89-112.
  • McClintock, Anne (1993) ‘Family Feuds: Gender, Nationalism and the Family’, Feminist Review vol. 44.
  • Moghadam, Valentine M (1994a) ‘Introduction and Overview’, in V Moghadam (ed.) Gender and National Identity: Women and Politics in Muslim Societies. London: Zed Books.
  • Moghadam, Valentine M (ed.) (1994b) Identity Politics and Women: Cultural Reassertions and Feminisms in International Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.
  • Moghadam, Valentine M (1993) Modernising Women: Gender and Social Change in the Middle East. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
  • Parker, A, D Sommer and P Yacgerleds (1992) Nationalisms and Sexualities. New York: Routledge.
  • Peterson, V Spike (2000) ‘Sexing Political Identities/Nationalism as Heterosexism’, in Sita Ranchod-Nilsson and Mary Ann Tétreault (eds.) Women, States and Nationalism: At Home in the Nation? London: Routledge, pp. 54-80.
  • Peterson, V Spike (1998) ‘Gendered Nationalism: Reproducing “Us” versus “Them”‘, in Lois Ann Lorentsen and Jennifer Turpin (eds.) The Women and War Reader. New York: New York University Press, pp. 41-49. (Significant scholar of gender and international politics. Useful easy to read piece.)
  • Pettman, Jindy (1996) Worlding Women. London: Routledge (chpt. 3 and other chpts in Part 1). (Significant scholar of gender and international politics.)
  • Porter, Elisabeth (1998) ‘Identity, Locality, Plurality: Women, Nationalism and Northern Ireland’, in Rick Wilford and Robert L Miller (eds.) Women, Ethnicity and Nationalism: The Politics of Transition. London and New York: Routledge, pp. 36-61.
  • Racioppi, Linda and Katherine O’Sullivan See (2000) ‘Engendering Nation and National Identity’, in Sita Ranchod-Nilsson and Mary Ann Tétreault (eds.) Women, States and Nationalism: At Home in the Nation? London: Routledge, pp. 18-34.
  • Rai, Shirin M (2002) ‘Gender, Nationalism, and “Nation-Building”: Discourses of Development’, in Gender and the Political Economy of Development. Cambridge: Polity.
  • Rajasingham-Senanayake, Darini (2001) ‘Ambivalent Empowerment: The Tragedy of Tamil Women in Conflict’, in Rita Manchanda (ed.) Women, War and Peace in South Asia: Beyond Victimhood to Agency. New Delhi: Sage, pp. 102-130.
  • Ranchod-Nilsson, Sita and Mary Ann Tétreault (2000) ‘Gender and Nationalism: Moving Beyond Fragmented Conversations’, in Sita Ranchod-Nilsson and Mary Ann Tétreault (eds.) Women, States and Nationalism: At Home in the Nation? London: Routledge, pp. 1-17.
  • Roulston, Carmel (1997) ‘Women on the Margin: The Women’s Movements in Northern Ireland, 1973-1995’, in Lois A West (ed.) Feminist Nationalism. New York: Routledge, pp. 41-58.
  • Sales, Rosemary (1997) ‘Gender and Protestantism in Northern Ireland’, in Peter Shirlow and Mark McGovern (eds.) Who Are “the People”? Unionism, Protestantism and Loyalism in Northern Ireland. London: Pluto Press, pp. 140-157.
  • Sales, Rosemary (1997) Women Divided: Gender, Religion and Politics in Northern Ireland. London and New York: Routledge.
  • Sharoni, Simona (2001) ‘Rethinking Women’s Struggles in Israel-Palestine and in the North of Ireland’, in Caroline O N Moser and Fiona C Clark (eds.) Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence. London: Zed Books, pp. 85-98.
  • Siapno, Jacqueline (2001) ‘Gender, Nationalism, and the Ambiguity of Female Agency in Aceh, Indonesia, and East Timor’, in M Waller and J Rycenga (eds.) Frontline Feminisms: Women, War, and Resistance. New York and London: Routledge, pp. 275-295.
  • Tétreault, Mary Ann (ed.) (1994) Women and Revolution in Africa, Asia, and the New World. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press (introduction and conclusion).
  • Thapar, Suruchi (1993) ‘Women as Activists, Women as Symbols: A study of the Indian Nationalist Movement’, Feminist Review vol. 44.
  • Thapar-Bjorkert (1996) ‘Gender, Colonialism and Nationalism: Women Activists in Uttar Pradesh’, in Mary Maynard and June Purvis (eds.) New Frontiers in Women’s Studies: Knowledge, Identity and Nationalism. London: Taylor and Francis.
  • Turshen, Meredith and Clothilde Twagiramariya (eds.) (1998) What Women Do in Wartime: Gender and Conflict in Africa. London: Zed Books.
  • Walby, Sylvia (1996) ‘Woman and Nation’, in Gopal Balakrishnan (ed.) Mapping the Nation. London: Verso, pp. 235-254.
  • Ward, Margaret (1989) Unmanageable Revolutionaries: Women and Irish Nationalism. London: Pluto Press.
  • Ward, Margaret (1995) In Their Own Voice: Women and Irish Nationalism. Dublin: Attic Press.
  • West, Lois A (ed.) (1997) Feminist Nationalism. New York: Routledge (‘Feminism Constructs Nationalism: Introduction’).
  • Yuval-Davis, Nira (2001) ‘Nationalism, Feminism and Gender Relations’, in Montserrat Guibernau and John Hutchinson (eds.) Understanding Nationalism. Cambridge: Polity, pp. 120-141.
  • Yuval-Davis, Nira (1998) ‘Gender and Nation’, in R Wilford and R Miller (eds.) Women, Ethnicity and Nationalism. London: Routledge, pp. 23-35.
  • Yuval-Davis, Nira (1996) ‘Women and the Biological Reproduction of “the Nation”‘, Women’s Studies International Forum vol. 19 nos. 1-2, pp. 17-25.


Term 1, Week 9 Lecture/Week 10 Seminar

Explaining Ethnic Conflict

  • *Note: Try to read something from each of the three sections of this week’s reading list.

Seminar Questions:

  • Debate competing ideas about the causes of ethnic conflict. What do you find most compelling?
  • What impact did the end of the Cold War have on patterns of ethnic nationalism and conflict?
  • Do you find economic explanations for ethnic conflict convincing?

Core Reading

General

  • Grigorian, Arman and Stuart J Kaufman (2007) ‘Correspondence: Hate Narratives and Ethnic Conflict’, International Security, vol. 31 no. 4, pp. 180-191. (READ WITH the 2006 Kaufman article.)
  • Gurr, Ted Robert and Barbara Harff (2004) Ethnic Conflict in World Politics. London: Westview Press, 2nd edn (chpts 1 and 5).
  • Horowitz, Donald (2000) Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2nd edn (chpts 3-5). (Seminal work on ethnic conflict. Recommended.)
  • Kaufman, Stuart J (2011) ‘Ethnicity as a Generator of Conflict’, in K Cordell and S Wolff (eds) Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 91-102.
  • Kaufman, Stuart J (2006) ‘Symbolic Politics or Rational Choice? Testing Theories of Extreme Ethnic Violence’, International Security, vol. 30 no. 4, pp. 45-86. (Looks at rational choice versus symbolic politics theories to explain extreme ethnic violence and concludes the rationalists are wrong. Looks at Rwanda and Sudan. READ WITH a challenge to this article from Arman Grigorian.)
  • Lake, David A and Donald Rothchild (1996) ‘Containing Fear: The Origins and Management of Ethnic Conflict’, International Security, vol. 21 no. 2, pp. 41-75. (Strategic dilemmas argument. Largely a rational choice approach but they also examine how non-rational factors like political myths and emotions interact with strategic dilemmas.)
  • Wolff, Stefan (2006) Ethnic Conflict: A Global Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press (chpts 3-4).

Intra-state Conflict and the End of the Cold War

  • Bowen, John R (1996) ‘The Myth of Global Ethnic Conflict’, Journal of Democracy vol. 7 no. 4, pp. 3-14. (Sceptical of primordial claims and rejects ‘ethnic cauldron’ notion about the end of the Cold War. Very instrumentalist argument; discusses role of colonialism and of elites in inciting ethnic conflict and violence.)
  • Brown, Michael E (1993) ‘Causes and Implications of Ethnic Conflict’, in M E Brown (ed.) Ethnic Conflict and International Security. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 3-26. (Opposes the notion that ethnic conflicts sprang up after the Cold War because the ‘lid’ on ‘ancient rivalries’ was removed; discusses alternative approaches to understanding ethnic conflict.)
  • Eriksson, Mikael, Peter Wallensteen and Margareta Sollenberg (2003) ‘Armed Conflict, 1989-2002’, Journal of Peace Research vol. 40 no. 5, pp. 593-607. (Their data on the incidence of armed conflict 1989-2002 shows the pattern of post-Cold War armed conflict is more complicated than the common assumption of a general upsurge in intra-state conflicts.) See also Wallensteen, Peter and Margareta Sollenberg (2001) ‘Armed Conflict, 1989-2000’, Journal of Peace Research vol. 38 no. 5, pp. 629-644; and Wallensteen, Peter and Margareta Sollenberg (1997) ‘Armed Conflicts, Conflict Termination, and Peace Agreements, 1989–1996’, Journal of Peace Research, vol. 34 no. 3, pp. 339–358.

Economics and Ethnic Conflict

  • Arnson, Cynthia and I William Zartman (eds.) (2005) Rethinking the Economics of War: The Intersection of Need, Creed, and Greed. Washington, DC: Woodrow Wilson Center Press (chpts by Arnson and Zartman). (Questions purely economic explanations for today’s intrastate armed conflicts and re-establishes the importance of identity and grievances.)
  • Ballentine, Karen and Jake Sherman (eds.) (2003) The Political Economy of Armed Conflict: Beyond Greed and Grievance. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner. (Introduction offers useful overview of the contentious debate over the role of economics in intrastate conflict; conclusion challenges idea that economic incentives are the sole or primary cause of most intrastate conflicts; case study chpts by Alexandros Yannis on the political economy of the Kosovo conflict and Rohan Gunaratna on economic dimensions of Tamil diaspora support for the LTTE in Sri Lanka.)
  • Berdal, Mats and David Malone (eds.) (2000) Greed and Grievance: Economic Agendas in Civil Wars. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner (introduction and chpts by David Keen, Paul Collier, Indra de Soysa, and David Shearer). (Collier’s work is particularly significant – argues that contemporary civil wars are largely motivated by economic greed of warring parties, rather than by political grievances. See also his other works.)
  • Collier, Paul and Anke Hoeffler (1998) ‘On Economic Causes of Civil War’, Oxford Economic Papers vol. 50 no. 4, pp. 563-573. (Significant piece in the contemporary debate on the role of economics in intrastate conflict.)
  • Connor, Walker (1994) Ethnonationalism: The Quest for Understanding. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press (chpt. 6). First published as (1984) ‘Eco- or Ethno-Nationalism?’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 7 October, pp. 342-359. (Challenges economic explanations for ethno-nationalism.)

Supplementary Reading

General

  • Bose, Sumantra (1995) ‘State Crises and Nationalities Conflict in Sri Lanka and Yugoslavia’, Comparative Political Studies vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 87-116. (Strong instrumentalist argument.)
  • Brown, Michael E (1997) ‘The Causes of Internal Conflict: An Overview’, in M E Brown, O R Coté, S M Lynn-Jones and S E Miller (eds.) Nationalism and Ethnic Conflict: An International Security Reader. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 3-25.
  • Brubaker, Rogers and David D Laitin (1998) ‘Ethnic and Nationalist Violence’, Annual Review of Sociology, vol. 24, pp. 423-452.
  • Burton, J (ed.) (1990) Conflict: Human Needs Theory. New York: St Martin’s Press.
  • Caprioli, Mary (2005) ‘Primed for Violence: The Role of Gender Inequality in Predicting Internal Conflict’, International Studies Quarterly vol. 49 no. 2, pp. 161-178. (See also Melander article listed below.)
  • Douglass, W (1988) ‘A Critique of Recent Trends in the Analysis of Ethnonationalism’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 11, pp. 192-206.
  • Downes, Alexander B (2006) ‘Desperate Times, Desperate Measures: The Causes of Civilian Victimization in War’, International Security, vol. 30 no. 4, pp. 152-195.
  • Esses, Victoria M and Richard A Vernon (eds) (2008) Explaining the Breakdown of Ethnic Relations: Why Neighbors Kill. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Fearon, James D (2004) ‘Why Do Some Civil Wars Last so Much Longer than Others?’, Journal of Peace Research, vol. 41 no. 3, pp. 275-301.
  • Frye, T M (1992) ‘Ethnicity, Sovereignty and Transitions from Non-Democratic Rule’, Journal of International Affairs vol. 45 no. 2, pp. 599-623.
  • Kaufman, S J (1996) ‘An “International” Theory of Inter-Ethnic War’, Review of International Studies vol. 22 no. 2, pp. 149-171 [available from module extracts webpage].
  • Lake, David A and Donald Rothchild (1998) ‘Spreading Fear: The Genesis of Transnational Ethnic Conflict’, in David A Lake and Donald Rothchild (eds.) The International Spread of Ethnic Conflict: Fear, Diffusion, and Escalation. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 3-32.
  • MacGinty, Roger (2006) No War, No Peace: The Rejuvenation of Stalled Peace Processes and Peace Accords. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (chpt. 3).
  • McGarry, John and Brendan O’Leary (eds.) (1993) The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation: Case Studies of Protracted Ethnic Conflicts. London: Routledge.
  • McKay, James (1982) ‘An Exploratory Synthesis of Primordial and Mobilizationist Approaches to Ethnic Phenomena’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 5, pp. 395-420. (Primordial vs. instrumentalist (which he calls ‘mobilizationist’) debate – argues that the two approaches can be reconciled in terms of describing empirical situations of ethnic solidarity.)
  • Melander, Erik (2005) ‘Gender Equality and Intrastate Armed Conflict’, International Studies Quarterly vol. 49 no. 4, pp. 695-714. (See also Caprioli article listed above.)
  • Mueller, John (2000) ‘The Banality of “Ethnic War”’, International Security vol. 25 no. 1, pp. 42-70. (Sceptical about the notion of ‘ethnic conflict’ as a distinct form of armed conflict; argues for other, non-ethnic motivations of conflict.)
  • Phadnis, Urmila and Rajat Ganguly (2001) Ethnicity and Nation-building in South Asia. New Delhi: Sage, rev. edn (chpts 4-5).
  • Roe, Paul (2004) ‘Which Security Dilemma? Mitigating Ethnic Conflict: The Case of Croatia’, Security Studies, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 280-313. (Argues that use of the security dilemma concept re. ethnic conflict has tended to group together disparate conflicts. He reformulates the concept into three different types, each of which corresponds to a particular type of conflict and results in/requires different means of conflict resolution.)
  • Ryan, S (1995) Ethnic Conflict and International Relations. Aldershot: Dartmouth, 2nd edn.
  • Ryan, S (1988) ‘Explaining Ethnic Conflict: The Neglected International Dimension’, Review of International Studies vol. 14, pp. 166-177.
  • Scott, G M (1990) ‘A Resynthesis of the Primordial and Circumstantial Approaches to Ethnic Group Solidarity: Towards an Explanatory Model’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 13 no. 2, pp. 147-171. (Theoretical model to explain ethnic movements, which combines both primordial and instrumentalist (which he calls ‘circumstantial’) approaches.)
  • Sisk, Timothy (1996) Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (chpt. 2). (Useful as an introduction; short and easy to follow.)
  • Snyder, Jack (2000) From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York: W W Norton. (On ways in which ethnic entrepreneurs can manipulate a multiethnic state’s weak norms and undermine democratic institutions.)
  • Stewart, Frances (ed.) (2008) Horizontal Inequalities and Conflict: Understanding Group Violence in Multiethnic Societies. Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan (chpts 1 & 3).
  • Vanhanen, Tatu (1999) ‘Domestic Ethnic Conflict and Ethnic Nepotism: A Comparative Analysis’, Journal of Peace Research, vol. 36 no. 1, pp. 55–73.
  • Young, Crawford (2002) ‘Explaining the Conflict Potential of Ethnicity’, in J Darby and R MacGinty (eds.) Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 9-18. (Brief introduction to the field.)

Intra-state Conflict and the End of the Cold War

  • Gurr, Ted Robert and Barbara Harff (2004) Ethnic Conflict in World Politics. London: Westview Press, 2nd edn. (Dispute the idea of an explosion of ethnic conflict after the Cold War in chpt. 1)
  • Huntington, Samuel (1993) ‘The Clash of Civilizations?’, Foreign Affairs vol. 72 no. 3, pp. 22-49. (Famous and highly controversial piece making an argument about the post-Cold War world experiencing ‘new’ forms of conflict between ‘civilizations’.)
  • Ignatieff, Michael (1994) Blood and Belonging: Journeys into the New Nationalism. London: Vintage. (Similar argument to that of Kaplan.)
  • Kaldor, Mary (2001) New and Old Wars: Organized Violence in a Global Era. Oxford: Polity (chpt. 1). (‘New wars’ argument – a related but slightly different claim about supposed changes to war wrought by globalisation. For critique READ WITH Newman.)
  • Kaplan, Robert D (2005) Balkan Ghosts: A Journey Through History. Picador, new edn [orig. 1994]. (Proponent of notion that Yugoslav communist regime kept the lid on ‘ancient’ ethnic, ‘tribal’ and national hatreds, and end of the Cold War led to violent resurgence of these hatreds and the collapse of Yugoslavia. This book is said to have been influential on the Clinton administration’s flawed thinking about the Balkans.)
  • Lacina, Bethany (2004) ‘From Side Show to Centre Stage: Civil Conflict after the Cold War’, Security Dialogue vol. 35 no. 2, pp. 191-205.
  • Mack, Andrew (2007) ‘Global Political Violence: Explaining the Post-Cold War Decline’, Working Paper, New York: International Peace Academy [available from: http://www.ipacademy.org/media/pdf/publications/cwc_working_paper_political_violence_am.pdf].
  • Moynihan, Daniel Patrick (1993) Pandaemonium: Ethnicity in International Politics. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (Similar idea of the world entering a period of ethnic conflict after the ‘stability’ of the Cold War.)
  • Newman, Edward (2004) ‘The “New Wars” Debate: A Historical Perspective is Needed’, Security Dialogue vol. 35 no. 2, pp. 173-189. (Critical of the claim that the post-Cold War ‘globalised’ world has witnessed the development of qualitatively new forms of armed conflict and an upsurge in conflict. READ WITH Kaldor.)

Economics and Ethnic Conflict

  • Abeyratne, Sirimal (1998) Economic Change and Political Conflict in Developing Countries: With Special Reference to Sri Lanka. VU University Press.
  • Banton, Michael (1994) ‘Modelling Ethnic and National Relations’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 17 no. 1, pp. 1-19.
  • Breton, A, et al. (eds.) (1995) Nationalism and Rationality. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Collier, Paul (2000) ‘Economic Causes of Civil Conflict and Their Implications for Policy’, World Bank paper 28134, 15 June [available from World Bank website: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/2004/03/10/000265513_20040310161100/Rendered/PDF/28134.pdf].
  • Collier, Paul and Anke Hoeffler (2000) ‘Greed and Grievance in Civil War’, World Bank Policy Research Working Paper 2355, May [available from World Bank website: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/2000/06/17/000094946_00060205420011/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf].
  • Collier, Paul et al. (2003) Breaking the Conflict Trap: Civil War and Development Policy. World Bank Policy Research Report 26121, May. Washington, DC: World Bank and Oxford University Press [available from World Bank website: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/2003/06/30/000094946_0306190405396/Rendered/PDF/multi0page.pdf].
  • Coulter, Colin (1999) ‘The Absence of Class Politics in Northern Ireland’, Capital & Class vol. 69 Autumn, pp. 77-100. (Provides an interesting case study example of why ethno-national identity can be more politically significant than socioeconomic positioning, even when socioeconomic positioning has more material impact on life chances. READ WITH McGarry and O’Leary chpt.)
  • Elbadawi, I and N Sambanis (2000) ‘Why are There so Many Civil Wars in Africa? Understanding and Preventing Violent Conflict’, Journal of African Economies, vol. 9 no. 3, pp.244 – 269.
  • Esman, Milton (1990) ‘Economic Performance and Ethnic Conflict’, in Joseph Montville (ed.) Conflict and Peacemaking in Multiethnic Societies. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books.
  • Hechter, M. (1986) ‘Rational Choice Theory and the Study of Race and Ethnic Relations’, in John Rex and David Mason (eds.) Theories of Race and Ethnic Relations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kanbur, Ravi (2007) ‘Poverty and Conflict: The Inequality Link’, Working Paper, New York: International Peace Academy [available from: http://www.ipacademy.org/media/pdf/publications/mgs_povr.pdf]. (Asserts that it is inequality between groups, rather than absolute poverty, that is significant in contributing to conflict.)
  • Kemp, Walter A (2004) ‘The Business of Ethnic Conflict’, Security Dialogue vol. 35 no. 1, pp. 43-59.
  • McGarry, John and Brendan O’Leary (1995) Explaining Northern Ireland. Oxford: Blackwell (chpt. 7). (READ WITH Coulter article. Coulter argues that McGarry and O’Leary take the pre-eminence of ethno-national identity over class identity in NI for granted, while Coulter asserts that this needs explaining and attempts to do so.)
  • Sambanis, Nicholas (2001) ‘Do Ethnic and Nonethnic Civil Wars Have the Same Causes? A Theoretical and Empirical Inquiry (Part I)’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 45 no. 3, pp. 259–282. (Asserts that it is important to make a distinction between identity-based and non-identity civil wars, arguing that identity wars are based predominantly on political grievances rather than lack of economic opportunities.)
  • Schock, Kurt (1996) ‘A Conjunctural Model of Political Conflict: The Impact of Political Opportunities on the Relationship between Economic Inequality and Violent Political Conflict’, The Journal of Conflict Resolution vol. 40 no. 1, pp. 98-133.
  • Storey, A (1999) ‘Economics and Ethnic Conflict: Structural Adjustment in Rwanda’, Development Policy Review, vol. 17 no. 1, pp.43-63.


Term 1, Week 10 Lecture/Week 11 (Spring Term) Seminar

Non-Traditional Agents of Political Violence

  • REMINDER: NON-ASSESSED ESSAY DUE IN WEEK 10 (in lecture)
  • *Note: We will largely be focusing on women combatants but some attention will be paid to child soldiers as well. You are welcome to follow up on the issue of child soldiers yourself independently and to write an essay relating to the topic.

Seminar Questions:

  • Why is it important to analyse the phenomenon of female and child combatants in contemporary ethno-national conflict?
  • Why do women and/or children become agents of political violence? (Think in terms both of why militant ethno-national groups employ women and children as combatants and what the voluntary/involuntary motivations are for women and children to participate.)
  • What are the consequences (for themselves, society and our understanding of ‘traditional agents of political violence’) of their active participation in ethno-national conflicts?

Core Reading

Female Combatants

  • African Rights (1995) Rwanda – Not So Innocent: When Women Become Killers. London: African Rights [email me for an electronic copy].
  • Alison, Miranda (2009) Women and Political Violence: Female Combatants in Ethno-national Conflict. London: Routledge.
  • Alison, Miranda (2004) ‘Women as Agents of Political Violence: Gendering Security’, Security Dialogue vol. 35 no. 4, pp. 447-463.
  • Dowler, Lorraine (1997) ‘The Mother of all Warriors: Women in West Belfast, Northern Ireland’, in Ronit Lentin (ed.) Gender and Catastrophe. London and New York: Zed Books, pp. 77-90 [available from module extracts webpage].
  • Rajasingham-Senanayake, Darini (2001) ‘Ambivalent Empowerment: The Tragedy of Tamil Women in Conflict’, in Rita Manchanda (ed.) Women, War and Peace in South Asia: Beyond Victimhood to Agency. New Delhi: Sage Publications India, pp. 102-130.
  • Schalk, Peter (1992) ‘Birds of Independence: On the Participation of Tamil Women in Armed Struggle’, Lanka vol. 7 December, pp. 44-142.
  • Skjelsbæk, Inger (2001) ‘Is Femininity Inherently Peaceful? The Construction of Femininity in War’, in Inger Skjelsbæk and Dan Smith (eds.) Gender, Peace and Conflict. London: Sage, pp. 47-67.

Child Combatants

  • Brett, Rachel and Irma Specht (2004) Young Soldiers: Why They Choose to Fight. Lynne Rienner [conclusion available from module extracts webpage].
  • Cairns, Ed (1987) Caught in Crossfire. Children and the Northern Ireland Conflict. Belfast: Appletree.
  • Wessells, Michael G (1998) ‘Children, Armed Conflict, and Peace’, Journal of Peace Research vol. 35 no. 5, pp. 635-646.
  • Wessells, Michael (2006) Child Soldiers: From Violence to Protection. Harvard University Press.

Supplementary Reading


Female Combatants

  • Alison, Miranda (2003) ‘Cogs in the Wheel? Women in the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam’, Civil Wars vol. 6 no. 4, pp. 37-54.
  • Ann, Adele (1990) ‘Women Fighters of Liberation Tigers: Women & the Struggle for Tamil Eelam’. EelamWeb [available from: http://www.eelamweb.com/women/].
  • Basu, Amrita (1998) ‘Hindu Women’s Activism in India and the Questions It Raises’, in Patricia Jeffery and Amrita Basu (eds.) Appropriating Gender: Women’s Activism and Politicized Religion in South Asia. New York and London: Routledge, pp. 167-184.
  • Bennett, Olivia, Jo Bexley and Kitty Warnock (eds.) (1995) Arms to Fight, Arms to Protect: Women Speak Out about Conflict. London: Panos Publications [chapter on Sri Lanka available from module extracts webpage].
  • Bouatta, Cherifa (1994) ‘Feminine Militancy: Moudjahidates During and After the Algerian War’, in Valentine M Moghadam (ed.) Gender and National Identity: Women and Politics in Muslim Societies. London: Zed Books, pp. 18-39.
  • Chinchilla, Norma Stoltz (1997) ‘Nationalism, Feminism, and Revolution in Central America’, in Lois A West (ed.) Feminist Nationalism. New York and London: Routledge, pp. 201-219.
  • de Mel, Neloufer (2001) ‘Agent or Victim? The Sri Lankan Woman Militant in the Interregnum’, chpt. 4 of Women and the Nation’s Narrative: Gender and Nationalism in Twentieth Century Sri Lanka. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association. Also the same chapter is reproduced (2003) in Wenona Giles et al. (eds.) Feminists Under Fire: Exhanges across War Zones. Toronto: Between the Lines, pp. 55-73.
  • de Pauw, Linda Grant (1998) Battle Cries and Lullabies: Women in War from Prehistory to the Present. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press.
  • Goldstein, Joshua (2001) War and Gender: How Gender Shapes the War System and Vice Versa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Hale, Sondra, ‘The Soldier and the State: Post-Liberation Women: The Case of Eritrea’, in M Waller and J Rycenga (eds.), 2001, Frontline Feminisms: Women, War, and Resistance, New York and London: Routledge, pp.349-370.
  • Helie-Lucas, M-A (1991) ‘Women in the Algerial Liberation Struggle’, in T Wallace and C March (eds.) Changing Perceptions: Writings on Gender and Development. Oxford: Oxfam.
  • Ibáñez, Ana Cristina (2001) ‘El Salvador: War and Untold Stories – Women Guerrillas’, in Caroline O N Moser and Fiona C Clark (eds.) Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence. London and New York: Zed Books, pp. 117-130.
  • Lilly, Carol S and Jill A Irvine (2002) ‘Negotiating Interests: Women and Nationalism in Serbia and Croatia, 1990-1997’, East European Politics and Societies vol. 16 no. 1, pp. 109-144.
  • Lyons, Tanya (2004) Guns and Guerilla Girls: Women in the Zimbabwean Liberation Struggle. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.
  • MacDonald, Eileen (1991) Shoot the Women First. London: Fourth Estate. (Interviews with women ‘terrorists’. Rather journalistic but interesting nonetheless.)
  • McGuire, Maria (1973) To Take Arms: A Year in the Provisional IRA. London: Macmillan. (An autobiography.)
  • MacKenzie, Megan (2009) ‘Securitization and Desecuritization: Female Soldiers and the Reconstruction of Women in Post-Conflict Sierra Leone’, Security Studies vol. 18 no. 2, pp. 241-261.
  • Mukta, Parita (2000) ‘Gender, Community, Nation: The Myth of Innocence’, in Susie Jacobs, Ruth Jacobson and Jen Marchbank (eds.) States of Conflict: Gender, Violence and Resistance. London and New York: Zed Books, pp. 163-178.
  • Salla, Michael (2001) ‘Women and War, Men and Pacifism’, in Inger Skjelsbæk and Dan Smith (eds.) Gender, Peace and Conflict. London: Sage, pp. 47-67.
  • Samarasinghe, Vidyamali (1996) ‘Soldiers, Housewives and Peace Makers: Ethnic Conflict and Gender in Sri Lanka’, Ethnic Studies Report vol. 14 no. 2, pp. 203-227.
  • Schalk, Peter (1994) ‘Women Fighters of the Liberation Tigers in Tamil Ilam: The Martial Feminism of Atel Palacinkam’, South Asia Research vol. 14 no. 2, pp. 163-183.
  • Schrijvers, Joke (1999) ‘Fighters, Victims and Survivors: Constructions of Ethnicity, Gender and Refugeeness among Tamils in Sri Lanka’, Journal of Refugee Studies vol. 12 no. 3, pp. 307-333.
  • Sharlach, Lisa (1999) ‘Gender and Genocide in Rwanda: Women as Agents and Objects of Genocide’, Journal of Genocide Research vol. 1 no. 3, pp. 387-399.
  • Sharoni, Simona (2001) ‘Rethinking Women’s Struggles in Israel-Palestine and in the North of Ireland’, in Caroline O N Moser and Fiona C Clark (eds.) Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence. London: Zed Books, pp. 85-98.
  • Shayne, Julie D (2004) The Revolution Question: Feminisms in El Salvador, Chile, and Cuba. Rutgers University Press.
  • Steel, Jayne (1998) ‘Vampira: Representations of the Irish Female Terrorist’, Irish Studies Review vol. 6 no. 3, pp. 273-284.
  • Turshen, Meredeth (1998) 'Women's war stories', in M Turshen and C Twagiramariya (eds) What Women Do in Wartime: gender and conflict in Africa, London: Zed.
  • Ward, Margaret (1995) Unmanageable Revolutionaries: Women and Irish Nationalism. London: Pluto, reprint of 1989 edn.

Child Combatants

  • Amnesty International (2003) Democratic Republic of Congo: Children at War. AI Report: Index AFR 62/034/2003 [available from AI website: http://web.amnesty.org/library/pdf/AFR620342003ENGLISH/$File/AFR6203403.pdf].
  • Boyden, Jo and Joanna de Berry (eds.) (2004) Children and Youth on the Front Line: Ethnography, Armed Conflict and Displacement. New York: Berghahn Books.
  • Briggs, Jimmie (2005) Innocents Lost: When Child Soldiers Go to War. Basic Books [chapter on Rwanda available from module extracts webpage].
  • Cohn, Ilene and Guy S Goodwin-Gill (1994) Child Soldiers: The Role of Children in Armed Conflict. Oxford: Clarendon.
  • Fox, Mary-Jane (2004) ‘Girl Soldiers’, Security Dialogue vol. 35 no. 4.
  • Honwana, Alcinda (2006) Child Soldiers in Africa. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.
  • Human Rights Watch (2007) Complicit in Crime: State Collusion in Abductions and Child Recruitment by the Karuna Group, vol. 19 no. 1 (C). New York: Human Rights Watch [available from: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/srilanka0107webwcover.pdf].
  • Human Rights Watch (2004) Living in Fear: Child Soldiers and the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka, vol. 16 no. 13 (C). New York: Human Rights Watch [available from: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/srilanka1104.pdf].
  • Keairns, Yvonne E (2003) The Voices of Girl Child Soldiers: Sri Lanka. New York: Quaker United Nations Office [available from: http://www.quno.org/newyork/Resources/girlSoldiersSriLanka.pdf].
  • Keairns, Yvonne E (2002) The Voices of Girl Child Soldiers: Summary. New York: Quaker United Nations Office [available from: http://www.quno.org/newyork/Resources/QUNOchildsoldiers.pdf].
  • Rosen, David M (2005) Armies of the Young: Child Soldiers in War and Terrorism. Rutgers University Press. (Argues against seeing child soldiers as always being passive victims.)
  • Singer, P W (2005) Children at War. Pantheon Books.
  • *See also reports from: Coalition to Stop the Use of Child Soldiers: http://www.child-soldiers.org/



Term 2, Week 11 Lecture/Week 12 Seminar

Sexual Violence in Ethnic Conflict

Seminar Questions:

  • What is the purpose of sexual violence in ethnic conflict?
  • Can we account for sexual violence occurring so frequently in wartime yet varying between conflicts?
  • How has wartime sexual violence been viewed and responded to by international institutions?

Core Reading

  • Alison, Miranda (2007) ‘Wartime Sexual Violence: Women’s Human Rights and Questions of Masculinity’, Review of International Studies, vol. 33, January, pp. 75-90.
  • Baaz, Maria Eriksson and Maria Stern (2009), 'Why Do Soldiers Rape? Masculinity, Violence, and Sexuality in the Armed Forces in the Congo (DRC)', International Studies Quarterly vol. 53, pp. 495-518. (This draws on interview testimonies from soldiers in the DRC about why they and other soldiers rape, so it is unusual in a literature which primarily looks at victims.)
  • Hague, Euan (1997) ‘Rape, Power and Masculinity: The Construction of Gender and National Identities in the War in Bosnia-Herzegovina’, in Ronit Lentin (ed.) Gender and Catastrophe. London and New York: Zed Books. (Interesting piece on masculinity and war rape.)
  • Price, Lisa S (2001) ‘Finding the Man in the Soldier-Rapist: Some Reflections on Comprehension and Accountability’, Women’s Studies International Forum vol. 24 no. 2, pp. 211-227.
  • Skjelsbæk, Inger (2001) ‘Sexual Violence and War: Mapping Out a Complex Relationship’, European Journal of International Relations vol. 7 no. 2, pp. 211-237. (Useful literature review that outlines different kinds of theoretical approaches that have been taken to the subject.)
  • Wood, Elizabeth Jean (2006) ‘Variation in Sexual Violence during War’, Politics & Society, vol. 34 no. 3, pp. 307-341. (Very useful.)

Supplementary Reading

  • African Rights (2004) Broken Bodies, Torn Spirits: Living with Genocide, Rape and HIV/AIDS. Kigali: African Rights [email me for an electronic copy].
  • African Rights (1994) Rwanda: Death, Despair and Defiance. London, African Rights.
  • Allen, Beverly (1996) Rape Warfare: The Hidden Genocide in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Croatia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Amnesty International (2004) Rwanda: “Marked for Death”, Rape Survivors Living with HIV/AIDS in Rwanda. AI Report: Index AFR 47/007/2004, 5 April [available from: http://web.amnesty.org/library/pdf/AFR470072004ENGLISH/$File/AFR4700704.pdf].
  • Amnesty International (2002) Sri Lanka: Rape in Custody [available from: http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?id=77850581CFC50D5480256B3D005B4BDE&lang=e].
  • Amnesty International (1999) Sri Lanka: Torture in Custody [available from: http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?id=96DB57AD3CCD39CF8025690000692C93&lang=e].
  • Andrić-Ružičić, Duska (2003) ‘War Rape and the Political Manipulation of Survivors’, in Wenona Giles et al. (eds.) Feminists Under Fire: Exhanges across War Zones. Toronto: Between the Lines, pp. 103-113.
  • Archer, John and Barbara Lloyd (2002) Sex and Gender. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2nd edn (chpt. 6). (Explains that the causal link between testosterone and aggression is disputed and not proved.)
  • Askin, Kelly Dawn (1997) War Crimes against Women: Prosecution in International War Crimes Tribunals. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
  • Benard, Cheryl (1994) ‘Rape as Terror: The Case of Bosnia’, Terrorism and Political Violence vol. 6 no. 1, pp. 29-43.
  • Benderly, Jill (1997) ‘Rape, Feminism, and Nationalism in the War in Yugoslav Successor States’, in Lois A West (ed.) Feminist Nationalism. New York and London: Routledge, pp. 59-72 [available from module extracts webpage].
  • Carlson, Eric Stener (2006) ‘The Hidden Prevalence of Male Sexual Assault During War: Observations on Blunt Trauma to the Male Genitals’, British Journal of Criminology vol. 46, pp. 16-25.
  • Coomaraswamy, Radhika (2003) ‘A Question of Honour: Women, Ethnicity, and Armed Conflict’, in Wenona Giles et al. (eds.) Feminists Under Fire: Exhanges across War Zones. Toronto: Between the Lines, pp. 91-101.
  • Coomaraswamy, Radhika (1998) Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, its causes and Consequences: Addendum: Report of the Mission to Rwanda on the Issues of Violence Against Women in Situations of Armed Conflict. E/CN.4/1998/54/Add.1, United Nations Economic and Social Council, 4 February [available from: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/TestFrame/aa272e9c0693a7b2c125661e0053fd4b?Opendocument].
  • Coomaraswamy, Radhika (1999) Report of the Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women, its Causes and Conseqences: Addendum: Mission to Indonesia and East Timor on the Issue of Violence Against Women. E/CN.4/1999/68/Add.3, United Nations Economic and Social Council: Commission on Human Rights, 21 January [available from: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/TestFrame/aa5bfc1f94a891828025674b003d180c?Opendocument].
  • Copelon, Rhonda (1995) ‘Gendered War Crimes: Reconceptualizing Rape in Time of War’, in Julie Peters and Andrea Wolper (eds.) Women’s Rights, Human Rights: International Feminist Perspectives. New York and London: Routledge, pp. 197-214.
  • Diken, Bülent and Carsten Bagge Laustsen (2005) ‘Becoming Abject: Rape as a Weapon of War’, Body & Society vol. 11 no. 1, pp. 111-128.
  • Etienne, Margareth (1995) ‘Addressing Gender-Based Violence in an International Context’, Harvard Women’s Law Journal vol. 18 Spring, pp. 139-170 [Note that Harvard Women’s Law Journal is now called Harvard Journal of Law & Gender].
  • Farwell, Nancy (2004) ‘War Rape: New Conceptualizations and Responses’, Affilia vol. 19 no. 4, pp. 389-403. (Very useful article.)
  • Green, Jennifer L (2004) 'Uncovering Collective Rape: A Comparative Study of Political Sexual Violence’, International Journal of Sociology, vol. 34 no. 1, pp. 97-116.
  • Hayden, Robert M (2000) ‘Rape and Rape Avoidance in Ethno-National Conflicts: Sexual Violence in Liminalized States’, American Anthropologist vol. 102 no. 1, pp. 27-41. (Interesting and somewhat provocative article.)
  • Human Rights Watch Africa (1996) Shattered Lives: Sexual Violence During the Rwandan Genocide and its Aftermath. New York, Human Rights Watch Africa [available from: http://www.hrw.org/reports/1996/Rwanda.htm]. (Warning: there is a lot of personal testimony in this report that is difficult to read.)
  • Human Rights Watch (2004) Struggling to Survive: Barriers to Justice for Rape Victims in Rwanda. [Available from: http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/rwanda0904.pdf].
  • Jones, Adam (1994) ‘Gender and Ethnic Conflict in Ex-Yugoslavia’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 17 no. 1, pp. 115-134.
  • Karen Women’s Organization (2004) ‘Shattering Silences: Karen Women Speak Out about the Burmese Military Regime’s Use of Rape as a Strategy of War in Karen State’ [email me for an electronic copy].
  • Kesić, Vesna (1994) ‘A Response to Catherine MacKinnon’s Article “Turning Rape into Pornography: Postmodern Genocide”’, Hastings Women’s Law Journal vol. 5 Summer, pp. 267-280. (READ WITH MacKinnon article listed below – criticises MacKinnon’s work on rape in the Balkans wars.)
  • Koenig, Dorean Margurite (1994) ‘Women and Rape in Ethnic Conflict and War’, Hastings Women’s Law Journal vol. 5 Summer, pp. 129-141.
  • Littlewood, Roland (1997) ‘Military Rape’, Anthropology Today vol. 13 no. 2, pp. 7-16.
  • MacKinnon, Catharine A (1994) ‘Rape, Genocide, and Women’s Human Rights’, Harvard Women’s Law Journal vol. 17 Spring, pp. 5-16 [Note that Harvard Women’s Law Journal is now called Harvard Journal of Law & Gender]. (READ WITH Kesić article listed above – MacKinnon’s work on rape in the Balkans wars has been very controversial.)
  • Mazowiecki, Tadeusz (1993) Report on the Situation of Human Rights in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia: Annex II: Report of the Team of Experts on Their Mission to Investigate Allegations of Rape in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia from 12 to 23 January 1993. E/CN.4/1993/50, United Nations Economic and Social Council: Commission on Human Rights, 10 February [available from: http://www.unhchr.ch/Huridocda/Huridoca.nsf/TestFrame/c0a6cfd5274508fd802567900036da9a?Opendocument].
  • Meznaric, Silva (1994) ‘Gender as an Ethno-Marker: Rape, War, and Identity Politics in the Former Yugoslavia’, in Valentine M Moghadam (ed.) Identity Politics and Women: Cultural Reassertions and Feminisms in International Perspective. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, pp. 76-97.
  • Murphy, Sean D (1999) ‘Progress and Jurisprudence of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia’, The American Journal of International Law vol. 93 no. 1, pp. 57-97. (For those of you interested to find out more about the work of the ICTY.)
  • Niarchos, Catherine N (1995) ‘Women, War, and Rape: Challenges Facing the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia’, Human Rights Quarterly vol. 17 no. 4, pp. 649-690.
  • Salzman, Todd A (1998) ‘Rape Camps as a Means of Ethnic Cleansing: Religious, Cultural, and Ethical Responses to Rape Victims in the Former Yugoslavia’, Human Rights Quarterly vol. 20 no. 2, pp. 348-378.
  • Seifert, Ruth (1996) ‘The Second Front: The Logic of Sexual Violence in Wars’, Women’s Studies International Forum vol. 19 nos. 1-2, pp. 35-43.
  • Sharlach, Lisa (2000) ‘Rape as Genocide: Bangladesh, the former Yugoslavia, and Rwanda’, New Political Science, vol. 22 no. 1, pp. 89-102.
  • Sharlach, Lisa (1999) ‘Gender and Genocide in Rwanda: Women as Agents and Objects of Genocide’, Journal of Genocide Research vol. 1 no. 3, pp. 387-399.
  • Sideris, Tina (2001) ‘Rape in War and Peace: Social Context Gender, Power and Identity’, in Sheila Meintjes, Anu Pillay and Meredeth Turshen (eds.) The Aftermath: Women in Post-Conflict Transformation. London: Zed Books, pp. 142-158.
  • Stiglmayer, Alexandra (ed.) (1994) Mass Rape: The War against Women in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press.
  • Taylor, Christopher C (1999) Sacrifice as Terror: The Rwandan Genocide of 1994. Oxford: Berg (chpt. 4). (Useful in regard to Rwanda and how colonial-influenced racial ideas contributed to rape of Tutsi women.)
  • Tompkins, Tamara L (1995) ‘Prosecuting Rape as a War Crime: Speaking the Unspeakable’, Notre Dame Law Review vol. 70 no. 4, pp. 845-890.
  • Turshen, Meredeth (2001) ‘The Political Economy of Rape: An Analysis of Systematic Rape and Sexual Abuse of Women during Armed Conflict in Africa’, in Caroline O N Moser and Fiona C Clark (eds.) Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence. London: Zed Books, pp. 55-68.
  • Van Boeschoten, Riki (2003) ‘The Trauma of War Rape: A Comparative View on the Bosnian Conflict and the Greek Civil War’, History and Anthropology vol. 14 no. 1, pp. 41-54.
  • Women’s League of Burma (2004) ‘System of Impunity: Nationwide Patterns of Sexual Violence by the Military Regime’s Army and Authorities in Burma’ [email me for an electronic copy].
  • Zarkov, Dubravka (2001) ‘The Body of the Other Man: Sexual Violence and the Construction of Masculinity, Sexuality and Ethnicity in the Croatian Media’, in Caroline O N Moser and Fiona C Clark (eds.) Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence. London: Zed Books, pp. 69-82. (Interesting piece on media representation of rape of Muslim men in former Yugoslavia.)


Term 2, Week 12 Lecture/Week 13 Seminar

Non-Violent Strategies for Change

Seminar Questions:

  • Critically assess the motivations for non-violent action according to the non-violence literature.
  • Are non-violent strategies a viable alternative to violence in order to achieve political change in societies divided by ethno-national conflict? (Which factors make the success of non-violent strategies for change more likely?)
  • Under which circumstances are ethnic contenders more likely to choose non-violent over violent strategies for change?

Core Reading

  • Burrowes, Robert J (1996) The Strategy of Nonviolent Defense: A Ghandian Approach. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  • Holmes, Robert L and Barry L Gan (2005) Nonviolence in Theory and Practice. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
  • Martin, Brian and Wendy Varney (2003) ‘Nonviolence and Communication’, Journal of Peace Research, vol. 40 no. 2, pp. 213–232. (Useful article on the communicative function of non-violence.)
  • Sharp, Gene (ed.) (2005) Waging Nonviolent Struggle: 20th Century Practice and 21st Century Potential. Boston: Extending Horizon Books (pts 1 & 3). (Recommended. Sharp is one of the seminal authors on strategic non-violence.)
  • Stephan, Maria J and Erica Chenoweth (2008) ‘Why Civil Resistance Works: The Strategic Logic of Nonviolent Conflict’, International Security, vol. 33 no. 1, pp. 7-44. (Useful article.)
  • Weber, Thomas (1993) ‘“The Marchers Simply Walked Forward until Struck Down”: Nonviolent Suffering and Conversion’, Peace & Change, vol. 18 no. 3, pp. 267–289. (Examines the outcome of non-violent protest, in light of the ‘conversion’ notion of proponents of principled non-violence.)

Supplementary Reading

  • Ackerman, Peter and Christopher Kruegler (1994) Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: The Dynamics of People Power in the Twentieth Century. Westport, Conn.: Praeger (chpts 1-2 & 9).
  • Arendt, Hannah (1972) ‘Civil Disobedience’, in Crises of the Republic: Lying in Politics, Civil Disobedience, On Violence, Thoughts on Politics, and Revolution. New York: Harcourt Brace.
  • Bedau, Hugo Adam (1991) ‘Civil Disobedience and Personal Responsibility for Injustice’, in H A Bedau (ed.) Civil Disobedience in Focus. London: Routledge, pp. 49-67. (From article first published under same title in The Monist vol. 54, 1970, pp. 517-535.)
  • Bedau, Hugo Adam (1961) ‘On Civil Disobedience’, Journal of Philosophy vol. 58 no. 21, pp. 653-665.
  • Bedau, Hugo Adam (ed.) (1969) Civil Disobedience: Theory and Practice. New York: Pegasus.
  • Bermanzohn, Sally Avery (2000) ‘Violence, Nonviolence, and the Civil Rights Movement’, New Political Science, vol. 22 no. 1, pp. 31-48.
  • Binnendijk, Anika Locke and Ivan Marovic (2006) ‘Power and Persuasion: Nonviolent Strategies to Influence State Security Forces in Serbia (2000) and Ukraine (2004)’, Communist and Post-Communist Studies, vol. 39 no. 3, pp. 411-429.
  • Bleiker, Roland (2000) Popular Dissent, Human Agency and Global Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Boudreau, Vincent (2004) Resisting Dictatorship: Repression and Protest in Southeast Asia. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Brown, Judith M (1977) Gandhi and Civil Disobedience: The Mahatma in Indian Politics, 1928-34. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Carter, April (2004) Direct Action and Democracy Today. Cambridge: Polity (chpts 1-3).
  • Carter, April, Howard Clark and Michael Randle (eds) (2006) People Power and Protest since 1945: A Bibliography on Nonviolent Action. London: Housmans.
  • DeNardo, James (1985) Power in Numbers: The Political Strategy of Protest and Rebellion. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Devlin, Bernadette (1969) The Price of My Soul. London: Deutsch in association with Pan Books (particularly chpt. 14).
  • Dooley, Brian (1998) Black and Green: The Fight for Civil Rights in Northern Ireland and Black America. London: Pluto.
  • Gans, Chaim (1992) Philosophical Anarchism and Political Disobedience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Helvey, (2004) On Strategic Nonviolent Conflict: Thinking about the Fundamentals. Boston: Albert Einstein Institution.
  • Hewitt, C (1991) ‘The Roots of Violence: Catholic Grievances and Irish Nationalism During the Civil Rights Period’, in P J Roche and B Barton (eds.) The Northern Ireland Question: Myth and Reality. Aldershot: Avebury OR Hewitt, C (1981) ‘Catholic Grievances, Catholic Nationalism and Violence in Northern Ireland During the Civil Rights Period: A Reconsideration’, British Journal of Sociology vol. 32 September, pp. 362-380.
  • Honderich, Ted (1994) Hierarchic Democracy and the Necessity of Mass Civil Disobedience. London: South Place Ethical Society [in pamphlets section of library].
  • Karatnycky, Adrian and Peter Ackerman (2005) How Freedom Is Won: From Civic Resistance to Durable Democracy. Washington, DC: Freedom House.
  • King, Martin Luther, Jr (1991) ‘Letter from Birmingham City Jail’, in H A Bedau (ed.) Civil Disobedience in Focus. London: Routledge, pp. 68-84. (From Why We Can’t Wait. New York: Harper & Row, 1963.)
  • King, Martin Luther, Jr (1991) A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings of Martin Luther King, Jr (edited by J M Washington). San Francisco, CA: Harper.
  • Kurlansky, Mark (2007) Nonviolence: The History of a Dangerous Idea. London: Vintage.
  • Lakey, George (ed.) (1987) Powerful Peacemaking: A Strategy for a Living Revolution. Philadelphia, PA: New Society.
  • Lawson, Steven F (2003) Civil Rights Crossroads: Nation, Community, and the Black Freedom Struggle. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky.
  • MacFarlane, Leslie J (1971) Political Disobedience. London: Macmillan.
  • Maliqi, Shkelzen (1997) ‘The Albanian movement in Kosova’, in D Dyker and I Vejvoda (eds.) Yugoslavia and After: A Study of Fragmentation, Despair and Rebirth. London: Longman.
  • Martin, Brian and Wendy Varney (2003) Nonviolence Speaks: Communicating Against Repression. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton.
  • McCann, Eamon (1993) War and an Irish Town. London: Pluto, 3rd edn (part 2) [hardcopy available in library and extract of pp. 83-118, from part 2, available from: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/events/crights/mccann93.htm].
  • McCarthy, Ronald M. and Gene Sharp (1997) Nonviolent Action: A Research Guide. London: Garland.
  • Morreall, John (1991) ‘The Justifiability of Violent Civil Disobedience’, in H A Bedau (ed.) Civil Disobedience in Focus. London: Routledge, pp. 130-143. (From article first published under same title in Canadian Journal of Philosophy vol. 6, 1976, pp. 35-47.)
  • Murphy, Jeffrie G (ed.) (1971) Civil Disobedience and Violence. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
  • Northern Ireland Civil Rights Association (NICRA) (1978) "We Shall Overcome”.... The History of the Struggle for Civil Rights in Northern Ireland 1968-1978. Belfast: NICRA [whole text available from: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/events/crights/nicra/nicra78.htm].
  • Oates, Stephen (1998) Let the Trumpet Sound: A Life of Martin Luther King, Jr. Edinburgh: Payback.
  • Ó Dochartaigh, Niall (1997) From Civil Rights to Armalites: Derry and the Birth of the Irish Troubles. Cork: Cork University Press [hardcopy available in library and chpt. 4, on the British Army in Northern Ireland August 1969-April 1970, available from: http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/events/troops/chap4.htm].
  • O’Leary, Brendan and John McGarry (1996) ‘Losing Control: The Collapse of the Unionist Regime, 1963-72’, chpt. 4 in The Politics of Antagonism: Understanding Northern Ireland. London: Athlone Press (and other edns).
  • Purdie, Bob (1990) Politics in the Streets: The Origins of the Civil Rights Movement in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Blackstaff.
  • Raines, Howell (1983) My Soul is Rested: Movement Days in the Deep South Remembered. Harmondsworth: Penguin.
  • Randle, Michael (1994) Civil Resistance. London: Fontana.
  • Rawls, John (1991) ‘Definition and Justification of Civil Disobedience’, in H A Bedau (ed.) Civil Disobedience in Focus. London: Routledge, pp. 103-121. (From A Theory of Justice. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.)
  • Rustin, Bayard (1976) Strategies for Freedom: The Changing Patterns of Black Protest. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Schock, Kurt (2005) Unarmed Insurrections: People Power Movements in Nondemocracies. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press (chpts 1-2 & 6).
  • Sharp, Gene (1987) ‘Nonviolent Struggle’, Journal of Palestine Studies Autumn, pp. 37-55.
  • Sharp, Gene (1973) The Politics of Nonviolent Action, 3 vols. Boston: Porter Sargent. (vol. 1: Power and Struggle; vol.2: The Methods of Nonviolent Action; vol. 3: The Dynamics of Nonviolent Action.)
  • Singer, Peter (1973) Democracy and Disobedience. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Smart, Brian (1991) ‘Defining Civil Disobedience’, in H A Bedau (ed.) Civil Disobedience in Focus. London: Routledge, pp. 189-211. (From article first published under same title in Inquiry vol. 21, 1978, pp. 249-269.)
  • Smith, William (2003) ‘Justifying Civil Disobedience: An Essay on Political Protest in a Constitutional Democracy’, Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Warwick [held in the Modern Records Centre].
  • Steger, Manfred B and Nancy S Lind (eds.) (1999) Violence and its Alternatives: An Interdisciplinary Reader. New York: St Martin’s Press.
  • Storing, Herbert J (1991) ‘The Case against Civil Disobedience’, in H A Bedau (ed.) Civil Disobedience in Focus. London: Routledge, pp. 85-102 [orig. pub. 1969].
  • Thoreau, Henry David (1991) ‘Civil Disobedience’, in H A Bedau (ed.) Civil Disobedience in Focus. London: Routledge, pp. 28-48 [orig. pub. 1848].
  • Thoreau, Henry D (edited by Wendell Glick) (2004) The Higher Law: Thoreau on Civil Disobedience and Reform. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
  • Weber, David R (1978) Civil Disobedience in America: A Documentary History. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Wehr, Paul, Heidi Burgess and Guy Burgess (eds) (1994) Justice without Violence. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
  • Wright, Frank (1987) ‘Internal Reconstructions and Civil Rights Movements’, in Northern Ireland: A Comparative Analysis. Dublin and London: Gill and Macmillan.
  • Zinn, Howard (2003) Disobedience and Democracy: Nine Fallacies on Law and Order. London: Pluto.
  • Zunes, Stephen, Lester R Kurtz and Sarah Beth Asher (eds) (1999) Nonviolent Social Movements: A Geographical Perspective. Oxford: Blackwell.
  • Zunes, Stephen (1994) ‘Unarmed Insurrections against Authoritarian Governments in the Third World: A New Kind of Revolution’, Third World Quarterly, vol. 15 no. 3, pp. 403–426.
  • *See also http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/events/crights/read.htm (Conflict Archive on the Internet, at Ulster University) for a list of sources on the civil rights campaign in Northern Ireland, including links to pamphlets produced by organisations like the Campaign for Social Justice.


Term 2, Week 13 Lecture/Week 14 Seminar

Internal Frameworks for Managing Conflict

  • *Note: Begin by gaining an understanding of centralised power-sharing systems (e.g. Sisk or Reilly) then move to a more detailed understanding of consociationalism specifically. On consociationalism, begin with Lijphart (outlining the model) then proceed to theoretical and normative evaluations of the model (e.g. Barry, Pappalardo, van Schendelen). By now there is quite an extensive literature on applications of the model, especially for Northern Ireland and South Africa

Seminar Questions:

  • Critically assess the potential of (consociational) power-sharing arrangements to prevent the outbreak or recurrence of violent ethnic conflict.
  • Why, according to Lijphart, is majoritarian democracy not suitable for multiethnic societies? Do you agree?
  • In your opinion, what is the biggest shortcoming of consociationalism? Do you think it is a suitable framework for managing conflict?

Core Reading

  • Barry, Brian (1975) ‘Political Accommodation and Consociational Democracy’ [review article], British Journal of Political Science vol. 5 no. 4. (Criticises consociational theory and normative claims.)
  • Horowitz, Donald (2000) Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2nd edn (Part 3: Party Politics and Ethnic Conflict and Part 5: Strategies of Conflict Reduction). (Generally critical of consociationalism as a way to resolve ethnic conflict – see chpt. 14 in particular.)
  • Lijphart, Arend (1977) Democracy in Plural Societies: A Comparative Exploration. New Haven: Yale University Press. (The seminal work on consociationalism.)
  • O’Leary, Brendan (2005) ‘Debating Consociational Politics: Normative and Explanatory Arguments’, in Sid Noel (ed.) (2005) From Power Sharing to Democracy: Post-conflict Institutions in Ethnically Divided Societies. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 3-43. (Useful assessment of consociationalism.)
  • Pappalardo, Adriano (1981) ‘The Conditions for Consociational Democracy: A Logical and Empirical Critique’, European Journal of Political Research vol. 9 no. 4, pp. 365-390.
  • Sisk, Timothy D (2002) ‘Power-sharing after Civil Wars: Matching Problems to Solutions’, in J Darby and R MacGinty (eds.) Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 139-150. (Very useful for understanding different forms of power-sharing.) OR Sisk (1996) Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (chpts 3-4). (Very useful for understanding power-sharing and the debate over consociational versus integrationist forms.) OR Reilly, Benjamin (2002) ‘Electoral Systems for Divided Societies’, Journal of Democracy vol. 13 no. 2, pp. 156-170. (On the role of electoral systems in promoting conflict management in divided societies. Discusses the debate over consociational versus integrationist forms of power-sharing in ethnically divided societies and specific electoral forms.)
  • van Schendelen, M P (1984) ‘The Views of Arend Lijphart and Collected Criticisms’, Acta Politica vol. 19.
  • Wolff, Stefan and Karl Cordell (2011) ‘Power-Sharing’, in K Cordell and S Wolff (eds) Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 300-310.

Supplementary Reading

  • Bew, Paul (2005) ‘The Belfast Agreement of 1998: From Ethnic Democracy to a Multicultural, Consociational Settlement?’, in Michael Cox, Adrian Guelke and Fiona Stephen (eds.) A Farewell to Arms? Beyond the Good Friday Agreement. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2nd edn.
  • Bieber, Florian (2005) ‘Power Sharing after Yugoslavia: Functionality and Dysfunctionality of Power-sharing Institutions in Post-war Bosnia, Macedonia, and Kosovo’, in Sid Noel (ed.) (2005) From Power Sharing to Democracy: Post-conflict Institutions in Ethnically Divided Societies. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 85-103.
  • Crawford, S.E. and Elinor Ostrom (1995) 'A Grammar of Institutions', American Political Science Association vol. 89 no. 3, pp. 582-600.
  • Daalder, Hans (1984) ‘On the Origins of the Consociational Democracy Model’, Acta Politica vol. 19 [you can access this article in a bound copy of this special issue of the journal Acta Politica, which is in Short Loan under the title Consociationalism, Pillarization and Conflict-Management in the Low Countries].
  • Daalder, Hans (1974) ‘The Consociational Democracy Theme’ [review article], World Politics vol. 26. (Useful overview of consociational ideas.)
  • du Toit, Pierre (1987) ‘Consociational Democracy and Bargaining Power’, Comparative Politics vol. 19 no. 4, pp. 419-430.
  • Hadenius, Axel and Lauri Karvonen (2001) ‘The Paradox of Integration in Intra-State Conflicts’, Journal of Theoretical Politics vol. 13 no. 1p, pp. 35-51. (On the disputed relationship between multi-ethnicity in states and ethnic conflict.)
  • Horowitz, Donald L (2002) ‘Constitutional Design: Proposals versus Processes’, in Andrew Reynolds (ed.) The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 15-36.
  • Horowitz, Donald (1989) ‘Making Moderation Pay: the Comparative Politics of Ethnic Conflict Management’, in Joseph Montville (ed.) Conflict and Peacekeeping in Multiethnic Societies. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books, pp. 451-476.
  • Lemarchand, René (2007) ‘Consociationalism and Power Sharing in Africa: Rwanda, Burundi, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo’, African Affairs vol. 106 no. 422, pp. 1-20.
  • Lijphart, Arend (1999) Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
  • Lijphart, Arend (1996) ‘The Framework Document on Northern Ireland and the Theory of Power-Sharing’, Government and Opposition vol. 31 no. 3, pp. 267-274.
  • Lijphart, Arend (1984) ‘Time Politics of Accommodation: Reflections – Fifteen Years Later’, Acta Politica vol. 19 [you can access this article in a bound copy of this special issue of the journal Acta Politica, which is in Short Loan under the title Consociationalism, Pillarization and Conflict-Management in the Low Countries].
  • Lijphart, Arend (1995) ‘Self-Determination versus Pre-Determination of Ethnic Minorities in Power-Sharing Systems’, in Will Kymlicka (ed.) The Rights of Minority Cultures. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • McGarry, John and Brendan O’Leary (eds.) (1993) The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation: Case Studies of Protracted Ethnic Conflicts. London: Routledge (relevant chpts).
  • Mitchell, Paul (2001) ‘Transcending an Ethnic Party System? The Impact of Consociational Governance on Electoral Dynamics and the Party System’ in Rick Wilford (ed.) Aspects of the Belfast Agreement. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 28-48.
  • O’Halloran, Patrick J (2005) ‘Post-conflict Reconstruction: Constitutional and Transitional Power-sharing Arrangements in Bosnia and Kosovo’, in Sid Noel (ed.) (2005) From Power Sharing to Democracy: Post-conflict Institutions in Ethnically Divided Societies. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 104-119.
  • O’Leary, Brendan (1990) ‘Limits to Coercive Consociationalism in Northern Ireland’, Political Studies vol. 37, pp 562-588.
  • O’Leary, Brendan (2001) ‘The Character of the 1998 Agreement: Results and Prospects’, in Rick Wilford (ed.) Aspects of the Belfast Agreement. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Reilly, B (2001) Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Rothchild, Donald and Philip G. Roeder (2005) ‘Dilemmas of State-Building in Divided Societies’, in Philip G. Roeder and Donald Rothchild (eds) Sustainable Peace: Power and Democracy after Civil Wars. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  • Sartori, Giovanni (1994) Comparative Constitutional Engineering: An Inquiry into Structures, Incentives and Outcomes. Basingstoke, Macmillan.
  • Steiner, Jurg (1981) ‘The Consociational Theory and Beyond’ [review article], Comparative Politics vol. 13 no. 3. (Argues there are some confusions in consociational theory that need to be addressed.)
  • Taylor, Rupert (1994) ‘A Consociational Path to Peace in Northern Ireland and South Africa?’, in A Guelke (ed.) New Perspectives on the Northern Ireland Conflict. Aldershot: Avebury.
  • Taylor, Rupert (1990) ‘South Africa: Consociation or Democracy?’, Telos vol. 85, pp. 17-32.


Term 2, Week 14 Lecture/Week 15 Seminar

Institutional Design as Conflict Management: Executive Structures and Electoral Systems in Divided Societies

  • *Note: If you are preparing this week’s topic for the essay or the exam, you might want to consult the core readings from week 13 as well, as certain arguments from week 13 and 14 build on each other.

Seminar Questions:

  • What are the perils and virtues of presidential forms of government in ethnically divided societies?
  • Which, if any, type of electoral system for the legislature has the greatest potential to reduce inter-ethnic tensions?
  • Are vote-pooling electoral systems or electoral systems of proportional representation based on party lists (list PR) more likely to help achieve sustainable peace in deeply divided societies?
  • Can institutional design solve violent ethnic conflict and/or prevent the outbreak of future violence?

Core Reading

Executive Structures

  • *Please read the following articles in this order, as they directly respond to each other:
  • Linz, Juan J (1990) ‘The Perils of Presidentialism’, Journal of Democracy vol. 1 no. 1, pp. 51-69.
  • Horowitz, Donald L (1990) ‘Comparing Democratic Systems’, Journal of Democracy vol. 1 no. 4 pp. 73-79.
  • Linz, Juan J (1990) ‘The Virtues of Parliamentarism’, Journal of Democracy vol. 1 no. 4, pp. 84-91.

Electoral Systems

  • Horowitz, Donald L. (1991) A Democratic South Africa? Constitutional Engineering in a Divided Society. Berkeley: University of California Press (chapter 5) OR Reilly, Benjamin (2001) Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (chapters 1 and 8).
  • Norris, Pippa (2002) ‘Ballots not Bullets: Testing Consociational Theories of Ethnic Conflict, Electoral Systems, and Democratization’, in Andrew Reynolds (ed.) The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 206-247.

Supplementary Reading

General

*These readings assess the role of executive structures as well as electoral systems in divided societies, or institutionalism more generally:

  • Alonso, Sonia and Ruben Ruiz (2005) Political Representation and Ethnic Conflict in New Democracies. Discussion Paper SP IV 2005-201. Berlin: Wissenschaftszentrum Berlin fuer Sozialforschung.
  • Cohen, Frank S. (1997) ‘Proportional versus Majoritarian Ethnic Conflict Management in Democracies’, Comparative Political Studies vol. 30 no. 5, pp. 607-630.
  • Grofman, Bernard and Robert Stockwell (2003) ‘Institutional Design in Plural Societies: Mitigating Ethnic Conflict and Fostering Stable Democracy’, in Ram Mudambi, Pietro Navarra and Giuseppe Sobbrio (eds.) Economic Welfare, International Business and Global Institutional Change. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, pp. 102-137.
  • Kymlicka, Will and Wayne Norman (1994) 'Return of the Citizen: A Survey of Recent Work on Citizenship Theory', Ethics vol. 104 no. 2, pp. 352-381.
  • Lijphart, Arend (2004) ‘Constitutional Design for Divided Societies’, Journal of Democracy vol. 15 no. 2, pp. 96-109.
  • Lijphart, Arend (1999) Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven and London: Yale University
    Press.
  • March, James G. and Johan P. Olsen (1984) 'The New Institutionalism: Organizational Factors in Political Life', The American Political Science Review vol. 78 no. 3, pp. 734-749.
  • O’Duffy, Brendan (1993) ‘Containment or Regulation? The British Approach to Ethnic Conflict in Northern Ireland’, in John McGarry and Brendan O’Leary (eds.) The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation: Case Studies of Protracted Ethnic Conflicts. London: Routledge. (Particularly interesting regarding questions about the limitations of what institutional design can achieve.)
  • O’Leary, Brendan and John McGarry (1996) The Politics of Antagonism: Understanding Northern Ireland. 2nd edition. London: Athlone Press (chapters 3 to 5).
  • Pande, Rohini (2003) 'Can Mandated Political Representation Increase Policy Influence for Disadvantaged Minorities? Theory and Evidence from India', The American Economic Review vol. 93 no. 4, pp. 1132-1151.
  • Saideman, Stephen M., David J. Lanoue, Michael Campenni and Samuel Stanton (2002) ‘Democratization, Political Institutions, and Ethnic Conflict: A Pooled Time-Series Analysis, 1985-1998’, Comparative Political Studies vol. 35 no. 1, pp. 103-129.
  • Schneckener, Ulrich (2002) ‘Making Power-Sharing Work: Lessons from Successes and Failures in Ethnic Conflict Regulation’, Journal of Peace Research vol. 39 no. 2, pp. 203-228. (Refers to Northern Ireland as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina.)
  • Shugart, Matthew S. and John M. Carey (1992) Presidents and Assemblies: Constitutional Design and Electoral Dynamics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Simonsen, Sven G. (2005) ‘Addressing Ethnic Divisions in Post-Conflict Institution-Building: Lessons from Recent Cases’ Security Dialogue vol. 26 no. 3, pp. 297-318.
  • Sisk, Timothy (1996) Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (chapter 3; builds directly on arguments from week 14).
  • Snyder, Jack (2000) From Voting to Violence: Democratization and Nationalist Conflict. New York: W W Norton (chapter 6). (Particularly interesting regarding questions about the limitations of institutional design; refers to Sri Lanka and Rwanda.)
  • Theuerkauf, Ulrike (2010) 'Institutional Design and Ethnic Violence: Do Grievances Help to Explain Ethnopolitical Instability?', Civil Wars vol. 12 nos 1-2, pp. 117-139.

Executive Structures

  • Cheibub, Jose Antonio (2007) Presidentialism, Parliamentarism, and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • de Silva, K. M. (1997) ‘Sri Lanka: Surviving Ethnic Strife’, Journal of Democracy vol. 8 no. 1, pp. 97-111.
  • Powell, G. Bingham, Jr. (1992) ‘Contemporary Democracies: Participation, Stability, and Violence’ in Arend Lijphart (ed.) Parliamentary versus Presidential Government. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 223-235.
  • Riggs, Fred W. (1997) ‘Presidentialism versus Parliamentarism: Implications for Representativeness and Legitimacy’ International Political Science Review vol. 18 no. 3, pp. 253-278.
  • Sartori, Giovanni (1994) Comparative Constitutional Engineering: An Inquiry into Structures, Incentives and Outcomes. Basingstoke: Macmillan (chapters 5, 6, 11 and 12).
  • Suberu, Rotimi T. and Larry Diamond (2002) ‘Institutional Design, Ethnic Conflict Management, and Democracy in Nigeria’ in Andrew Reynolds (ed.) The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 400-428.

Electoral Systems

  • Davis, Gavin (2004) ‘Proportional Representation and Racial Campaigning in South Africa’, Nationalism and Ethnic Politics vol. 10 no. 2, pp. 297-324.
  • DeVotta, Neil (2005) ‘From Ethnic Outbidding to Ethnic Conflict: The Institutional Bases for Sri Lanka’s separatist war’, Nations and Nationalism vol. 11 no. 1, pp. 141-159.
  • Reilly, Benjamin (2001) Democracy in Divided Societies: Electoral Engineering for Conflict Management. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Chapter 5 for arguments relating to Sri Lanka and chapter 6 for arguments relating to Northern Ireland.)
  • Sartori, Giovanni (1994) Comparative Constitutional Engineering: An Inquiry into Structures, Incentives and Outcomes. Basingstoke: Macmillan (chapters 3 and 4).
  • Wilkinson, Steven I. (2004) Votes and Violence: Electoral Competition and Ethnic Riots in India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press (chapter 5). (This reading is quite technical; you might want to have a look at it if you studied party systems before.)


Term 2, Week 15 Lecture/Week 17 Seminar

Separation as a Solution? Partition and Secession

Seminar Questions:

  • Are autonomy arrangements (including federalism) more likely to enhance or reduce the risk of violent ethnic conflict and state break-up in ethnically diverse societies?
  • Can partition and separation solve violent ethnic conflict?
  • In your own opinion, is the creation of comparatively ethnically homogeneous states or sub-state entities a suitable solution to violent ethnic conflict?

Core Reading

Partition and Secession

  • Downes, Alexander B (2004) ‘The Problem with Negotiated Settlements to Ethnic Civil Wars’, Security Studies, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 230–279. (Pro-partition, suggesting that ending ethnic civil wars with either partition (into fully independent states) or military victory may be more stable than agreements to share or diffuse power within a single state, but not a security dilemma argument. Looks at Bosnia and Kosovo.)
  • Horowitz, Donald L (2003) ‘The Cracked Foundations of the Right to Secede’, Journal of Democracy vol. 14 no. 2, pp. 5-17. (Argues that secession/partition is almost never an answer to problems of ethnic conflict and violence and is likely to worsen them. Argues for fostering inter-ethnic accommodation within states.)
  • Johnson, Carter (2008) ‘Partitioning to Peace: Sovereignty, Demography, and Ethnic Civil Wars’, International Security, vol. 32 no. 4, pp. 140-170. (Cross-national test of partitions following ethnic civil wars 1945-2004, concluding that partition is effective in preventing war recurrence and low-level violence but only if it includes the physical separation of ethnic groups – challenge to findings of Sambanis.)
  • Kaufmann, Chaim (1998) ‘When All Else Fails: Ethnic Population Transfers and Partitions in the Twentieth Century’, International Security vol. 23 no. 2, pp. 120-156. (Argues for partition with physical separation of ethnic groups, including population transfer, as a solution to violent ethnic conflict. Kaufmann’s work has been prominent and controversial.) OR Kaufmann (1996) ‘Possible and impossible solutions to Ethnic Civil Wars’, International Security vol. 20 no 4, pp. 136-175.
  • O’Leary, Brendan (2011) ‘Debating Partition: Evaluating the Standard Justifications’, in K Cordell and S Wolff (eds) Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 140-157.
  • Sambanis, Nicholas (2000) ‘Partition as a Solution to Ethnic War: An Empirical Critique of the Theoretical Literature’, World Politics vol. 52 July, pp. 437-483. (Assesses the theory that partition is a solution to intra-state conflict, using data on civil wars post-WWII. Critical of the idea that partition is a credible solution to ethnic civil war and that it reduces violence. Critical of Kaufmann’s position.)

Federalism and Autonomy Arrangements

  • Bermeo, Nancy (2002) ‘The Import of Institutions’, Journal of Democracy vol. 13 no. 2, pp. 96-110. (On the utility of federalism in accommodating territorially based ethnic minorities.)
  • Brancati, Dawn (2009) Peace by Design: Managing Intrastate Conflict Through Decentralization. Oxford: Oxford University Press (chapter 2).
  • Horowitz, Donald (2000) Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2nd edn (chpt. 15).
  • Malešević, Siniša (2000) ‘Ethnicity and Federalism in Communist Yugoslavia and Its Successor States’ in Yash P. Ghai (ed.) Autonomy and Ethnicity: Negotiating Competing Claims in Multi-Ethnic States. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 147-172.
  • McGarry, John and Brendan O’Leary (2005) ‘Federation as a Method of Ethnic Conflict Regulation’, in Sid Noel (ed.) (2005) From Power Sharing to Democracy: Post-conflict Institutions in Ethnically Divided Societies. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 263-296.

Supplementary Reading

Partition and Secession

  • Bartkus, Viva Ona (1999) The Dynamic of Secession. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Beran, Harry (1993) ‘Border disputes and the Right to National Self-Determination’, History of European Ideas vol. 16, pp.479-86. (Debates problems with the idea of national self-determination, such as how to decide what a nation is and who counts as a nation, how to decide who is entitled to decide the boundaries of the state, how to resolve conflicting rights of self-determination etc.)
  • Beran, Harry (1990) ‘Who Should be Entitled to Vote in Self-Determination Referenda?’, in Martin Warner and Roger Crisp (eds.) Terrorism, Protest and Power. Aldershot: Edward Elgar.
  • Beran, Harry (1984) ‘A Liberal Theory of Secession’, Political Studies vol. 32 no. 1, pp. 21-31 [available from module extracts webpage]. (READ WITH Birch article and other Beran article responding to Birch, listed below.)
  • Beran, Harry (1988) ‘More Theory of Secession: A Response to Birch’, Political Studies vol. 36 no. 2, pp. 316-323 [available from module extracts webpage]. (READ WITH Birch article and other Beran article.)
  • Birch, A H (1984) ‘Another Liberal Theory of Secession’, Political Studies vol. 32 no. 4, pp. 596-602 [available from module extracts webpage]. (READ WITH Beran articles.)
  • Buchanan, A (1992) ‘Self-Determination and the Right to Secede’, Journal of International Affairs vol. 45 no. 2, pp. 347-62. (Discusses the problematic position of the right to secession in international law and the failure of liberal theory to engage with the question of secession; proposes some conditions justifying a limited right to secede.)
  • Buchanan, Allen E (1991) Secession: The Morality of Political Divorce from Fort Sumter to Lithuania and Quebec. Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview Press.
  • Buchheit, Lee C (1978) Secession: The Legitimacy of Self-Determination. New Haven: Yale University Press.
  • Byman, Daniel (2002) Keeping the Peace: Lasting Solutions to Ethnic Conflict. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.
  • Carment, David and Dana Rowlands (2004) ‘Vengeance and Intervention: Can Third Parties Bring Peace without Separation?’, Security Studies, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 366-393. (Argue that some important cases cast doubt on the Kaufmann proposition, though the evidence is inconclusive.)
  • Cassese, Antonio (1995) Self-Determination of Peoples: A Legal Reappraisal. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Dahbour, Omar (1993) ‘Self-Determination in Political Philosophy and International Law’, History of European Ideas vol. 16 nos. 4-6, pp. 879-884.
  • de Zayas, Alfred M (1975) ‘International Law and Mass Population Transfers’, Harvard International Law Journal, vol. 16 no. 2, pp. 207–258.
  • Dion, Stéphane (1996) ‘Why is Secession Difficult in Well Established Democracies? Lessons from Quebec’, British Journal of Political Science vol. 26 no. 2, pp. 269-283.
  • Downes, Alexander B (2006) ‘More Borders, Less Conflict? Partition as a Solution to Ethnic Civil Wars’, SAIS Review, vol. 26 no. 1, pp. 49–61. (Argues that partition should be considered as an option for ending severe ethnic conflicts and maintains that partitioning Kosovo is the only stable solution for that region. Also favours partition rather than power-sharing in Iraq.)
  • Downes, Alexander B (2001) ‘The Holy Land Divided: Partition as a Solution to Ethnic Wars’, Security Studies, vol. 10 no. 4, pp. 58–116. (Distinguishes between ‘security dilemma realism’ and ‘standard realism’ in regard to the different approaches of the pro-partition camp.)
  • Etzioni, A (1993) ‘The Evils of Self-Determination’, Foreign Policy vol. 89 Winter, pp. 21-35. (Argues that contemporary ‘self-determination movements’ will lead to less democratic rather than more democratic states and to more ethnic conflict; therefore, they should be opposed and people must learn to live with people of different cultures and backgrounds.)
  • Fearon, James D (2004) ‘Separatist Wars, Partition, and World Order’, Security Studies, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 394-415. (Argues that partition may seem attractive in individual cases but that it would have significant negative effects on other states and on interstate relations.)
  • Fraser, T G (1984) Partition in Ireland, India and Palestine: Theory and Practice. London: Macmillan.
  • Gallagher, Michael (1990) ‘Do Ulster Unionists Have a Right to Self-Determination?’, Irish Political Studies vol. 5, pp. 11-30 [available from module extracts webpage].
  • Galnoor, Itzhak (1995) The Partition of Palestine: Decision Crossroads in the Zionist Movement. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.
  • George, David (1993) ‘The Right of National Self Determination’, History of European Ideas vol. 16 nos. 4-6, pp. 507-513. (Discusses the moral standing of a ‘right’ to self-determination and argues that no moral right to self-determination should be ascribed to nations.)
  • Gerner, Deborah J (1994) One Land, Two Peoples: The Conflict Over Palestine. Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview, 2nd edn (chpt. 1).
  • Goebel, Christopher M (1993) ‘Population Transfer, Humanitarian Law, and the Use of Ground Force in U.N. Peacemaking: Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Wake of Iraq’, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, vol. 25 no. 3, pp. 627–698.
  • Hannum, Hurst (2004) ‘Territorial Autonomy: Permanent Solution or Step toward Secession?’, in Andreas Wimmer, Richard J Goldstone, Donald L Horowitz, Ulrike Joras and Conrad Schetter (eds) Facing Ethnic Conflicts: Toward a New Realism. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
  • Hannum, Hurst (1996) Autonomy, Sovereignty and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, rev. edn (Part I).
  • Hechter, Michael (1992) ‘The Dynamics of Secession’, Acta Sociologica vol. 35 no. 4, pp. 267-283. (Analysis of secession from a rational choice perspective.)
  • Heraclides, Alexis (1992) ‘Secession, Self-Determination and Nonintervention: In Quest of a Normative Symbiosis’, Journal of International Affairs vol. 45 no. 2, pp. 399-420. (Position of secession in current international legal and political norms. Argues for only a very limited right to secede, based on four attributes.)
  • Heraclides, Alexis (1991) The Self-Determination of Minorities in International Politics. London: Frank Cass.
  • Heraclides, Alexis (1990) ‘Secessionist Minorities and External Involvement’, International Organization vol. 44 no. 3, pp. 341-378.
  • Horowitz, Donald (2000) Ethnic Groups in Conflict. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2nd edn (chpts 6 and 14).
  • Huth and Allee (2002) The Democratic Peace and Territorial Conflict in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Kumar, Radha (1997a) ‘The Troubled History of Partition’, Foreign Affairs vol. 76 no. 1, pp. 22-34. (Outlines the defence of partition and the problematic history of partition; largely critical of partition.)
  • Kumar, Radha (1997b) Divide and Fall? Bosnia in the Annals of Partition. New York: Verso.
  • Kuperman, Alan J (2004) ‘Is Partition Really the Only Hope? Reconciling Contradictory Findings About Ethnic Civil Wars’, Security Studies, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 314-349. (Takes to task both Kaufmann, on the one hand, and Mason and Fett on the other.)
  • Laffan, Michael (1983) The Partition of Ireland: 1911-1925. Dundalk: Dundalgan Press.
  • Laitin, (2004) ‘Ethnic Unmixing and CivilWar’, Security Studies, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 350–365. (Challenges Kaufmann’s claim that territorial concentration of ethnic groups results in a relatively lower probability of further violence after a civil war.)
  • Macedo, Stephen and Alan Buchanan (eds.) (2003) Secession and Self-Determination. New York: New York University Press.
  • Mansergh, Nicholas (1978) The Prelude to Partition: Concepts and Aims in Ireland and India. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Mason, T David and Patrick J Fett (1996) ‘How Civil Wars End: A Rational Choice Approach’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 40 no. 4, pp. 546–68. (In contradiction to Kaufmann, they find that ethnic conflicts are no more difficult to resolve through negotiated settlements than other civil wars. They present a rational choice model of the decision process by which parties involved in a civil war opt for a negotiated settlement rather than continue fighting.)
  • Mearsheimer, John J (2000) ‘The Case for Partitioning Kosovo’, in Ted Galen Carpenter (ed.) NATO’s Empty Victory: A Postmortem on the Balkan War. Washington, DC: Cato Institute, pp. 133–138.
  • Mitchell, Paul, ‘Futures’, in Paul Mitchell and Rick Wilford (eds.) (1999) Politics in Northern Ireland. Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview Press, pp. 265-284. (Section on ‘separation’ reviews the case for repartition of Northern Ireland and argues against this.)
  • Moore, Margaret, (ed.) (1998) National Self-Determination and Secession. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • O’Leary, Brendan, Ian Lustick and Thomas Callaghy (eds.) (2001) Right-Sizing the State: The Politics of Moving Borders. Oxford: Oxford University Press (chpts 1-3 and 12-13).
  • O'Leary, Brendan (2007) ‘Analysing Partition: Definition, Classification and Explanation’, Political Geography vol. 26 no. 8, pp. 886-908.
  • Phadnis, Urmila and Rajat Ganguly (2001) Ethnicity and Nation-building in South Asia. New Delhi: Sage, rev. edn (chpts 6-7).
  • Rady, Martyn (1996) ‘Self determination and the dissolution of Yugoslavia’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 19 no. 2.
  • Schaeffer, Robert (1990) Warpaths: The Politics of Partition. New York: Hill and Wang.
  • Sproat, Peter Alan (1996) ‘The United Nations’ encouragement of Aggression and Ethnic Cleansing: Time to Abandon the Right to Self-Determination?’, Terrorism and Political Violence vol. 8 no. 1, pp. 93-113.
  • Tir, Jaroslav (2005) ‘Keeping the Peace after Secession: Territorial Conflicts between Rump and Secessionist States’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 49 no. 5, pp. 713–741. (Argues that ethnically based secessions are more likely to lead to further conflict than other kinds of secessions; also that peaceful partitions make war much less likely than violent partitions.)
  • Tullberg, Jan and Brigitta S Tullberg (1997) ‘Separation or Unity? A Model for Solving Ethnic Conflicts’, Politics and the Life Sciences, vol. 16 no. 2, pp. 237–248.
  • Wood, John R (1981) ‘Secession: A Comparative Analytical Framework’, Canadian Journal of Political Science vol. 14 no. 1, pp. 107-134.
  • Woodward, Susan L (1995) ‘Redrawing Borders in a Period of Systemic Transition’ in M J Esman and S Telhami (eds.) International Organizations and Ethnic Conflict. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.

Federalism and Autonomy Arrangements

  • Amoretti, Ugo M and Nancy Bermeo (eds.) (2004) Federalism and Territorial Cleavages. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press (successes and failures of federalism).
  • Ghai, Yash P. (2002) ‘Constitutional Asymmetries: Communal Representation, Federalism, and Cultural Autonomy’ in Andrew Reynolds (ed.) The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 141-170.
  • Hannum, Hurst (2004) ‘Territorial Autonomy: Permanent Solution or Step toward Secession?’, in Andreas Wimmer, Richard J Goldstone, Donald L Horowitz, Ulrike Joras and Conrad Schetter (eds) Facing Ethnic Conflicts: Toward a New Realism. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.
  • Kymlicka, Will (2007) ‘Multi-Nation Federation’ in Baogang He, Brian Galligan and Takashi Inoguchi (eds.) Federalism in Asia. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar, pp. 33-56.
  • McGarry, John and Brendan O’Leary (2005) ‘Federation as a Method of Ethnic Conflict Regulation’, in Sid Noel (ed.) (2005) From Power Sharing to Democracy: Post-conflict Institutions in Ethnically Divided Societies. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 263-296.
  • O’Leary, Brendan (2002) ‘Federations and the Management of Nations: Agreements and Arguments with Walker Connor and Ernest Gellner’, in Daniele Conversi (ed.) Ethnonationalism in the Contemporary World: Walker Connor and the Study of Nationalism. London: Routledge.
  • Popovski, Vesna (1995) ‘Yugoslavia: Politics, Federation, Nation’, in G Smith (ed.) Federalism: The Multiethnic Challenge. London: Longman, pp. 180-207.
  • Ramet, Sabrina P (1984) Nationalism and Federalism in Yugoslavia, 1963-1983. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
  • Smith, Graham (1995) ‘Mapping the Federal Condition: Ideology, Political Practice and Social Justice’, in G Smith (ed.) Federalism: The Multiethnic Challenge. London: Longman, pp. 1-28.
  • Watts, Ronald L. (1998) ‘Federalism, Federal Political Systems, and Federations’, Annual Review of Political Science vol. 1, pp. 117-137.
  • Weaver, R Kent (2002) ‘Electoral Rules and Governability’, Journal of Democracy vol. 13 no. 2, pp. 111-125. (On federalism and electoral systems in designing democratic institutions.)
  • Wolff, Stefan (2009) ‘Complex Power-sharing and the Centrality of Territorial Self-governance in Contemporary Conflict Settlements’, Ethnopolitics vol. 8 no. 1, pp. 27-45.
  • Žagar, Mitja (2005) ‘The Collapse of the Yugoslav Federation and the Viability of Asymmetrical Federalism’ in Sergio Ortino, Mitja Žagar and Vojtech Mastny (eds.) The Changing Faces of Federalism: Institutional Reconfiguration in Europe from East to West. Manchester: Manchester University Press, pp. 107-133.



Term 2, Week 17 Lecture/Week 18 Seminar

Peace Processes and International Intervention

Seminar Questions:

  • Discuss some of the key and contested ideas about conflict resolution and international intervention in societies divided by ethno-national conflict.
  • Can there be sustainable peace in our case studies, and if so, how can it be achieved?
  • Does the success of peace settlements depend upon outside enforcement?

Core Reading

  • Darby, John and Roger MacGinty (2002) ‘Introduction: What Peace? What Process?’ and ‘Conclusion: Peace Processes, Present and Future’, in J Darby and R MacGinty (eds.) Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 1-6 and 256-274. (Very useful overview of pertinent issues.)
  • Lederach, John Paul (2002) ‘Cultivating Peace: A Practitioner’s View of Deadly Conflict and Negotiation’, in J Darby and R MacGinty (eds.) Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 30-37. (READ WITH Zartman listed below – challenges Zartman’s idea that negotiations can only be fruitfully entered into at ‘ripe moments’.)
  • Ross, Marc Howard (2000) ‘Creating the Conditions for Peacemaking: Theories of Practice in Ethnic Conflict Resolution’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 23 no. 6, pp. 1002-1034. (Looks at ideas about creating the conditions so that groups in conflict can move towards effective negotiations.)
  • Siniver, Asaf (2011) ‘Managing and Settling Ethnic Conflict’, in K Cordell and S Wolff (eds) Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 187-197.
  • Sisk, Timothy (1996) Power Sharing and International Mediation in Ethnic Conflicts. Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace (chpts 5-6). (Recommended; easy to follow book.)
  • Sobotka, Eva (2011) ‘Multilateral Frameworks for Conflict Resolution’, in K Cordell and S Wolff (eds) Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 198-211.
  • Wolff, Stefan (2006) Ethnic Conflict: A Global Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press (chpt. 5).
  • Zartman, I William (2002) ‘The Timing of Peace Initiatives: Hurting Stalemates and Ripe Moments’, in J Darby and R MacGinty (eds.) Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 19-29. (Argues that some political, social and economic moments are ‘ripe’ for negotiation and a move to non-violence, while others are not. READ WITH Lederach chpt. listed above.)

Supplementary Reading

  • Ali, Taisier M and Ronald O Matthews (eds.) (2004) Durable Peace: Challenges for Peacebuilding in Africa. University of Toronto Press.
  • Ali, Taisier M and Ronald O Matthews (eds.) (2000) Civil Wars in Africa: Roots and Resolution. McGill-Queen’s University Press.
  • Barnes, Catherine (2009) ‘Renegotiating the Political Settlement in War-to-Peace Transitions’, paper commissioned by the UK Department for International Development, London: Conciliation Resources [available from: http://www.c-r.org/resources/occasional-papers/documents/CR_2Renegotiating_Settlement_20Mar09-2.pdf].
  • Barnes, Catherine (ed.) (2002) Owning the Process: Public Participation in Peacemaking, Accord 13. London: Conciliation Resources [available, after signing up, from: http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/pdfs/index.php]. (Looks at mechanisms for public participation in peacemaking.)
  • Carment, David and Dana Rowlands (2004) ‘Vengeance and Intervention: Can Third Parties Bring Peace without Separation?’, Security Studies, vol. 13 no. 4, pp. 366-393.
  • Coakley, John (1992) ‘The Resolution of Ethnic Conflict: Towards a Typology’, International Political Science Review vol. 13 no. 4.
  • Coomaraswamy, Radhika and Dilrukshi Fonseka (eds.) (2004) Peace Work: Women, Armed Conflict and Negotiation. New Delhi: Women Unlimited.
  • Cordero, Isabel Coral (2001) ‘Social Organizations: From Victims to Actors in Peace Building’, in Caroline O N Moser and Fiona C Clark (eds.) Victims, Perpetrators or Actors? Gender, Armed Conflict and Political Violence. London: Zed Books, pp. 151-163.
  • Crocker, Chester A (2007) ‘Peacemaking and Mediation: Dynamics of a Changing Field’, Working Paper, New York: International Peace Academy [available from: http://www.ipacademy.org/media/pdf/publications/cwc_working_paper_peacemaking_cc.pdf].
  • de Silva, K M and S W R de A Samarasinghe (eds.) (1993) Peace Accords and Ethnic Conflict. London: Pinter Publishers (for the International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Colombo).
  • Diehl, Paul F (2008) Peace Operations. Cambridge: Polity.
  • Galtung, Johan (1969) ‘Violence, Peace, and Peace Research’, Journal of Peace Research vol. 6 no. 3, pp. 167-191. (Developed the idea of ‘negative peace’ and ‘positive peace’, drawing on Martin Luther King, Jr.)
  • Galtung, Johan (1985) ‘Twenty-Five Years of Peace Research: Ten Challenges and Some Responses’, Journal of Peace Research vol. 22 no. 2, pp. 141-158.
  • Goodhand, Jonathan and David Hulme (1999) ‘From Wars to Complex Political Emergencies: Understanding Conflict and Peace-Building in the New World Disorder’, Third World Quarterly vol. 20 no. 1, pp. 13-26.
  • Greig, J Michael and Paul F Diehl (2005) ‘The Peacekeeping-Peacemaking Dilemma’, International Studies Quarterly vol. 49 no. 4, pp. 624-645.
  • Griffiths, Aaron and Catherine Barnes (eds) (2008) Powers of Persuasion: Incentives, Sanctions and Conditionality in Peacemaking, Accord 19. London: Conciliation Resources [available, after signing up, from: http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/pdfs/index.php]. (Uses case studies to examine whether and how incentives, sanctions and conditionality can constructively influence conflicting parties’ engagement in peacemaking initiatives.)
  • Guelke, Adrian (2002) ‘Negotiations and Peace Processes’, in J Darby and R MacGinty (eds.) Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 53-64. (Identifies recurring phases in peace processes.)
  • Hartzell, Caroline (1999) ‘Explaining the Stability of Negotiated Settlements to Intrastate Wars’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 43 no. 1, pp. 3–22. (Argues that the negotiated settlements that are the most extensively institutionalized against security threats are the ones most likely to prove stable.)
  • Hartzell, Caroline, Matthew Hoddie and Donald Rothchild (2001) ‘Stabilizing the Peace After Civil War: An Investigation of Some Key Variables’, International Organization, vol. 55 no. 1, pp. 183–208.
  • Hoddie, Matthew and Caroline Hartzell (2005) ‘Signals of Reconciliation: Institution-Building and the Resolution of Civil Wars’, International Studies Review vol. 7 no. 1, pp. 21-40. (More sceptical than Walter about the importance of and capacity for external intervention. Neoliberal institutionalist approach.)
  • Horgan, John (2009) Walking Away from Terrorism: Accounts of Disengagement from Radical and Extremist Movements. Abingdon: Routledge.
  • Horowtiz, Donald (1993) ‘Conflict and the Incentives to Political Accommodation’, in Dermot Keogh and Michael Haltzel (eds.) Northern Ireland and the Politics of Reconciliation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • King, Charles (1997) Ending Civil Wars. Oxford: Oxford University Press for IISS (Adelphi Paper 308, in the Pamphlets section of library).
  • Licklider, Roy (1995) ‘The Consequences of Negotiated Settlements in Civil Wars, 1945–1993’, American Political Science Review, vol. 89 no. 3, pp. 681–90. (Supports the hypothesis that negotiated settlements of identity-based civil wars are likely to break down; however while military victories may be less likely to break down than negotiated settlements, they are also more likely to be followed by acts of genocide – so we face a dilemma.)
  • Licklider, Roy (ed.) (1993) Stopping the Killing: How Civil Wars End. New York: New York University Press.
  • MacGinty, Roger (2006) No War, No Peace: The Rejuvenation of Stalled Peace Processes and Peace Accords. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (chpts 1-2 and conclusion). (Interesting book challenging our current assumptions about peace processes and agreements. Recommended.)
  • MacGinty, Roger (1998) ‘Issue Hierarchies in Peace Processes: The Decommissioning of Paramilitary Arms’, Civil Wars vol. 1 no. 3, pp. 25-45.
  • McGarry, John and Brendan O’Leary (eds.) (1993) The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation: Case Studies of Protracted Ethnic Conflicts. London: Routledge (particularly ‘Introduction: the Macro-Political Regulation of Ethnic Conflict’).
  • Mason, T David and Patrick J Fett (1996) ‘How CivilWars End: A Rational Choice Approach’, Journal of Conflict Resolution, vol. 40 no. 4, pp. 546–68. (They present a rational choice model of the decision process by which parties involved in a civil war opt for a negotiated settlement rather than continue fighting.)
  • Miall, Hugh, Oliver Ramsbotham and Tom Woodhouse (1999) Contemporary Conflict Resolution: The Prevention, Management and Transformation of Deadly Conflict. Cambridge: Polity Press. (Helpful in explaining the background to and development of conflict resolution theory.)
  • Mitchell, Christopher (2002) ‘Mediation and the Ending of Conflicts’, in J Darby and R MacGinty (eds.) Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 77-86.
  • Montville, Joseph (ed.) (1989) Conflict and Peacekeeping in Multiethnic Societies. Lexington, MA: Lexington Books (particularly Donald Horowitz, ‘Making Moderation Pay: the Comparative Politics of Ethnic Conflict Management’).
  • Ricigliano, Robert (ed.) (2005) Choosing to Engage: Armed Groups and Peace Processes, Accord 16. London: Conciliation Resources [available, after signing up, from: http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/pdfs/index.php]. (Explores the case for engaging with armed groups, and the options, roles and challenges in this engagement.)
  • Ross, Marc Howard and Jay Rothman (1999) Theory and Practice in Ethnic Conflict Management: Theorising Success and Failure. London: Macmillan.
  • Rotberg, Robert I (1996) Vigilance and Vengeance: NGOs Preventing Ethnic Conflict in Divided Societies. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
  • Rothman, Jay (1992) From Confrontation to Cooperation: Resolving Ethnic and Regional Conflict. London: Sage.
  • Rupesinghe, Kumar (1998) Civil Wars, Civil Peace: An Introduction to Conflict Resolution. London: Pluto Press.
  • Samaddar, Ranabir and Helmut Reifeld (eds.) (2001) Peace as Process: Reconciliation and Conflict Resolution in South Asia. Manohar Publishers.
  • Stedman, Stephen John (1996) ‘Negotiation and Mediation in Internal Conflict’, in Michael E Brown (ed.) The International Dimensions of Internal Conflict. Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 341–76.
  • Stedman, Stephen John, Donald Rothchild and Elizabeth M Cousens (eds.) (2002) Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner (particularly George Downs and Stephen John Stedman, ‘Evaluation Issues in Peace Implementation’; Michael W Doyle, ‘Strategy and Transitional Authority’; and Donald Rothchild, ‘Settlement Terms and Postagreement Stability’).
  • Wallensteen, Peter (2002) Understanding Conflict Resolution: War, Peace and the Global System. Sage (particularly chpts 1 and 6 and also 9-10).
  • Walter, Barbara F (2002) Committing to Peace: The Successful Settlement of Civil Wars. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • Walter, Barbara F (1999) ‘Designing Transitions from Civil War: Demobilization, Democratization, and Commitments to Peace’, International Security, vol. 24 no. 1, pp. 127–55.
  • Walter, Barbara F (1997) ‘The Critical Barrier to Civil War Settlement’, International Organization, vol. 51 no. 3, pp. 335–64. (Finds that ethnic wars are no more difficult to resolve than nonidentity ones; maintains instead that fear and insecurity can become major stumbling blocks to settling any kind of civil war. Argues for a credible-commitment theory of civil war resolution and also for the significance of external security guarantees.)
  • Woodhouse, Tom and Oliver Ramsbotham (eds.) (2000) Peacekeeping and Conflict Resolution. Frank Cass.
  • Zartman, I William (ed.) (1995) Elusive Peace: Negotiating an End to Civil Wars. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution (particularly chpts 1, 7, 13).
  • Zartman, I William (1985) Ripe for Resolution: Conflict and Intervention in Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Term 2, Week 18 Lecture/Week 19 Seminar

Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Peacebuilding

Seminar Questions:

  • Is there a problem with the current liberal international peacebuilding and post-conflict reconstruction paradigm?
  • Under which conditions are peacebuilding efforts most likely to either succeed or fail?
  • Discuss some of the difficulties entailed in post-conflict disarmament, demobilisation and reintegration of armed groups.

Core Reading

  • Barnett, Michael (2006) ‘Building a Republican Peace: Stabilizing States after War’, International Security, vol. 30 no. 4, pp. 87–112. (Critical of the dominant ‘liberal peacebuilding’ approach and proposes an alternative, ‘republican peacebuilding’.)
  • Call, Charles T and Elizabeth M Cousens (2007) ‘Ending Wars and Building Peace’, Working Paper, New York: International Peace Academy [available from: http://www.ipacademy.org/media/pdf/publications/cwc_working_paper_ending_wars_ccec.pdf]. (Very useful piece. Critical of the ‘implicit universalism’ of peacebuilding programmes.)
  • Handrahan, Lori (2004) ‘Conflict, Gender, Ethnicity and Post-Conflict Reconstruction’, Security Dialogue, vol. 35 no. 4, pp. 429–445.
  • Heupel, Monika (2011) ‘Post-Conflict Reconstruction in Ethnically Divided States’, in K Cordell and S Wolff (eds) Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 212-224.
  • O’Flynn, Ian and David Russell (2011) ‘Deepening Democracy: The Role of Civil Society’, in K Cordell and S Wolff (eds) Routledge Handbook of Ethnic Conflict, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 225-235.
  • Spear, Joanna (2002) ‘Disarmament and Demobilization’, in Stedman, Stephen John, Donald Rothchild and Elizabeth M Cousens (eds.) Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
  • Stedman, Stephen John (2002) ‘Peace Processes and the Challenges of Violence’, in J Darby and R MacGinty (eds.) Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 103-113. (Useful on problems with implementing peace agreements.) OR Stedman (1997) ‘Spoiler Problems in Peace Processes’, International Security vol. 22 no. 2, pp. 5-53.
  • Wolff, Stefan (2006) Ethnic Conflict: A Global Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press (chpt. 6).

Supplementary Reading

  • Addison, Tony (ed.) (2003) From Conflict to Recovery in Africa. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • Berdal, Mats (1996) Disarmament and Demobilisation after Civil Wars. Oxford: Oxford University Press for IISS (Adelphi Paper 303, in the Pamphlets section of library).
  • Bermeo, N (2009) ‘Does Electoral Democracy Boost Economic Equality?’, Journal of Democracy, vol. 20 no. 4, pp.21-35.
  • Bhagwati, J. 2002. ‘Democracy and Development: Cruel Dilemma or Symbiotic Relationship?’ Review of Development Economics, vol. 6 no. 2, pp.151-162.
  • Boyce, J K (2002) Investing in Peace: Aid and Conditionality after Civil Wars. Oxford: Oxford University Press for IISS (Adelphi Paper 351, in the Pamphlets section of library).
  • Caprioli, M, R Nielsen and V Hudson (2010) ‘Women and Post-Conflict Settings’, in T Gurr, J Hewitt and J Wilkenfeld (eds) Peace and Conflict. Boulder, CO: Paradigm Publishers.
  • Cederman, Lars-Erik and Luc Girardin (2007) ‘Beyond Fractionalization: Mapping Ethnicity onto Nationalist Insurgencies’, American Political Science Review vol. 101 no.1, pp. 173-185. (Contains important arguments on the role of clientelism/nepotism.)
  • Chua, Amy (2002) World on Fire: How Exporting Free Market Democracy Breeds Ethnic Hatred and Global Instability. New York: Doubleday.
  • Collier, Paul (1999) ‘On the Economic Consequences of Civil War’, Oxford Economic Papers vol. 51 no. 1, pp. 168-183.
  • Collier, Paul (2000) ‘Policy for Post-conflict Societies: Reducing the Risks of Renewed Conflict’, paper presented at The Economics of Political Violence Conference, Princeton University, March 18-19 [available as World Bank paper 28135 from World Bank website: http://www-wds.worldbank.org/external/default/WDSContentServer/IW3P/IB/2004/03/10/000265513_20040310161907/Rendered/PDF/28135.pdf].
  • Collier, Paul and Nicholas Sambanis, eds. (2005) Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis. Volume 1: Africa. Washington, DC: The World Bank. (Contains some interesting arguments on the role of informal political institutions more generally, and why they tend to be overlooked in political science analysis.)
  • Coomaraswamy, Radhika and Dilrukshi Fonseka (eds.) (2004) Peace Work: Women, Armed Conflict and Negotiation. New Delhi: Women Unlimited.
  • Cousens, Elizabeth M and Chetan Kumar (eds) (2001) Peacebuilding as Politics: Cultivating Peace in Fragile Societies. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
  • Englebert, Pand D M Tull (2008) ‘Postconflict Reconstruction in Africa’, International Security, vol. 32 no. 4, pp. 106-139.
  • Farr, Vanessa, et al. (2002) ‘Gender Perspectives on Small Arms and Light Weapons: Regional and International Concerns’, Bonn International Center for Conversion, Brief 24 [available from: http://www.bicc.de/uploads/pdf/publications/briefs/brief24/brief24.pdf].
  • Gamba, Virginia (2002) ‘Managing Violence: Disarmament and Demobilization’, in J Darby and R MacGinty (eds.) Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 125-136.
  • Green, Reginald Herbold and Ismail I Ahmed (1999) ‘Rehabilitation, Sustainable Peace and Development: Towards Reconceptualisation’, Third World Quarterly vol. 20 no. 1, pp. 189-206.
  • Harris, Geoff (ed.) (1999) Recovery from Armed Conflict in Developing Countries: An Economic and Political Analysis. London: Routledge.
  • Hayner, Priscilla N (2002) Unspeakable Truths: Facing the Challenge of Truth Commissions. New York: Routledge (esp. chapters on ‘Truth versus Justice: Is it a Trade-off?’, ‘Healing from the Past’, and ‘An Eye to the Future: Reconciliation and Reforms’).
  • Hintjes, Helen M. (1999) ‘Explaining the 1994 Genocide in Rwanda’, The Journal of Modern African Studies vol. 37 no. 2, pp. 241-286. (Highlights the relevance of informal structures of civic life, how they became socially entrenched and how they affected the genocide.)
  • Hoddie, Matthew and Caroline Hartzell (2005) ‘Signals of Reconciliation: Institution-Building and the Resolution of Civil Wars’, International Studies Review vol. 7 no. 1, pp. 21-40.
  • International Crisis Group (1997) Going Nowhere Fast: Refugees and Internally Displaced Persons in Bosnia. London: ICG [available from: http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?l=1&id=1572].
  • Llamazares, Monica (2005) ‘Post-War Peacebuilding Reviewed: A Critical Exploration Of Generic Approaches To Post-War Reconstruction’, Working Paper 14, Bradford: Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford [available from: http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/confres/papers/pdfs/CCR14.pdf].
  • Laurance, Edward J and Sarah Meek (1996) ‘The New Field of Micro-Disarmament: Addressing the Proliferation and Buildup of Small Arms and Light Weapons’, Bonn International Center for Conversion, Brief 7 [available from: http://www.bicc.de/uploads/pdf/publications/briefs/brief07/brief7.pdf].
  • Lauth, Hans-Joachim (2000) ‘Informal Institutions and Democracy’, Democratization vol. 7 no. 4, pp. 21-50. (Very relevant for a general distinction of formal and informal political institutions.)
  • Lewer, Nick (1999) ‘International Non-Government Organisations and Peacebuilding: Perspectives from Peace Studies and Conflict Resolution’, Working Paper 3, Bradford: Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford [available from: http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/confres/papers/pdfs/CCR3.pdf].
  • Lie, Tove Grete, Helga Malmin Binningsbø and Scott Gates (2006) ‘Post-Conflict Justice and Sustainable Peace’, paper presented at PAC workshop, Nicosia, Cyprus, 26-29 April [available from PRIO website: http://www.prio.no/files/file47830_post_conflict_justice_and_sustainable_peace.pdf].
  • MacGinty, Roger (2006) No War, No Peace: The Rejuvenation of Stalled Peace Processes and Peace Accords. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (especially chpt. 6 but also chpts 4-5). (Challenges our current attitudes towards peace processes and their long-term impacts on conflicted societies.)
  • MacGinty, Roger (1998) ‘Issue Hierarchies in Peace Processes: The Decommissioning of Paramilitary Arms’, Civil Wars vol. 1 no. 3, pp. 25-45.
  • Mauro, Paolo (1995) ‘Corruption and Growth’, The Quarterly Journal of Economics vol. 110 no. 3, pp. 681-712.
  • Meintjes, Sheila, Anu Pillay and Meredeth Turshen (eds.) (2001) The Aftermath: Women in Post-Conflict Transformation. London: Zed Books (various chapters: particularly chpts 1 and 5-6).
  • Ndikumana, Léonce (1998) ‘Institutional Failure and Ethnic Conflicts in Burundi’, African Studies Review vol. 41 no. 1, pp. 29-47. (Deals with the role of corruption and clientelism.)
  • Pankhurst, Donna (2003) ‘The “Sex War” and Other Wars: Towards a Feminist Approach to Peace Building’, Development in Practice, vol. 13 no. 2/3, pp. 154-177.
  • Pankhurst, Donna (2000) ‘Women, Gender and Peacebuilding’, Working Paper 5, Bradford: Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford [available from: http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/confres/papers/pdfs/CCR5.pdf].
  • Paris, Roland (2004) At War’s End: Building Peace after Civil Conflict. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Paris, Roland (1997) ‘Peacebuilding and the Limits of Liberal Internationalism’, International Security, vol. 22 no. 2, pp. 54-89. (An earlier criticism of liberal peacebuilding.)
  • Simpson, Graeme (1997) ‘Reconstruction and Reconciliation: Emerging from Transition’, Development in Practice, vol. 7 no. 4, pp. 475-478.
  • Varshney, Ashutosh (2001) ‘Ethnic Conflict and Civil Society: India and Beyond’, World Politics vol. 52 no. 3, pp. 362-398. (This article does not explicitly refer to the implementation of peace agreements, hence you need to make the connection yourself.)
  • Wimmer, Andreas (1997) ‘Who Owns the State? Understanding Ethnic Conflict in Post-Colonial Societies’, Nations and Nationalism vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 631-666. (This article does not explicitly refer to the implementation of peace agreements, hence you need to make the connection yourself.)
  • Wimmer, Andreas (2002) Nationalist Exclusion and Ethnic Conflict: Shadows of Modernity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. (Relevant for the discussion of informal political institutions.)
  • Woodhouse, Tom (1999) ‘International Conflict Resolution: Some Critiques and a Response’, Working Paper 1, Bradford: Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford [available from: http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/confres/papers/pdfs/CCR1.pdf].
  • Zahar, Marie-Joëlle (2002) ‘Reframing the Spoiler Debate in Peace Processes’, in J Darby and R MacGinty (eds.) Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 114-124.


Term 2, Week 19 Lecture/Week 20 Seminar

Managing Conflict in the Case Studies

  • *Note: Try to read up on two of our four case studies.

Seminar Questions:

  • Discuss the difficult progress of conflict resolution attempts in Sri Lanka. What do you think the longterm prospects are for Sri Lanka in the wake of the 2009 state military victory against the LTTE?
  • Account for the 1990s peace process in Northern Ireland and debate its success 15 years after the signing of the Belfast Agreement.
  • Assess the international response to armed conflict in the former Yugoslavia, and the character and impact of the agreements reached.
  • Assess the international response to conflict and genocide in Rwanda, and Rwandan attempts at peacebuilding after the genocide.

Core Reading

Sri Lanka

  • International Crisis Group (2008) Sri Lanka’s Return to War: Limiting the Damage, Asia Report No. 146, Colombo/Brussels: ICG [available from: http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=5305&l=1].
  • International Crisis Group (2006) Sri Lanka: The Failure of the Peace Process, Asia Report No. 124, Colombo/Brussels: ICG [available from: http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=4523&CFID=16244016&CFTOKEN=20794249].
  • Lunn, Jon, Claire Taylor and Ian Townsend (2009) War and Peace in Sri Lanka, Research Paper 09/51, House of Commons Library [available from: http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/research/rp2009/rp09-051.pdf] (chpts 1 & 5).
  • Smith, Chris (2007) ‘The Eelam Endgame?’, International Affairs, vol. 83 no. 1, pp. 69-86.

Northern Ireland

  • Bric, Maurice and John Coakley (eds.) (2004) From Political Violence to Negotiated Settlement: The Winding Path to Peace in Twentieth Century Ireland. Dublin: University College Dublin Press.
  • MacGinty, Roger and John Darby (2000) ‘Northern Ireland: Long, Cold Peace’, in J Darby and R Mac Ginty (eds.) The Management of Peace Processes. London: Macmillan.
  • McCartney, Clem (ed.) (1999) Striking a Balance: The Northern Ireland Peace Process, Accord 8. London: Conciliation Resources [available, after signing up, from: http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/pdfs/index.php]. (Examines factors leading to the negotiations resulting in the 1998 Belfast Agreement.)
  • Mitchell, Paul (2001) ‘Transcending an Ethnic Party System? The Impact of Consociational Governance on Electoral Dynamics and the Party System’ in Rick Wilford (ed.) Aspects of the Belfast Agreement. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 28-48.
  • O’Leary, Brendan (2001) ‘The Character of the 1998 Agreement: Results and Prospects’, in Rick Wilford (ed.) Aspects of the Belfast Agreement. Oxford: Oxford University Press OR Ruane, Joseph and Jennifer Todd (1999) ‘The Belfast Agreement: Context, Content, Consequences’, in Joseph Ruane and Jennifer Todd (eds.) After the Good Friday Agreement: Analysing Political Change in Northern Ireland. Dublin: University College Dublin Press.
  • Wolff, Stefan (2005) ‘Between Stability and Collapse: Internal and External Dynamics of Post-Agreement Institution Building in Northern Ireland’, in Sid Noel (ed.) (2005) From Power Sharing to Democracy: Post-conflict Institutions in Ethnically Divided Societies. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 44-66. (Assessment of post-Agreement implementation problems.)

The Former Yugoslavia

  • Bieber, Florian (2005) ‘Power Sharing after Yugoslavia: Functionality and Dysfunctionality of Power-sharing Institutions in Post-war Bosnia, Macedonia, and Kosovo’, in Sid Noel (ed.) From Power Sharing to Democracy: Post-conflict Institutions in Ethnically Divided Societies. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 85-103 OR O’Halloran, Patrick J (2005) ‘Post-conflict Reconstruction: Constitutional and Transitional Power-sharing Arrangements in Bosnia and Kosovo’, in Sid Noel (ed.) (2005) From Power Sharing to Democracy: Post-conflict Institutions in Ethnically Divided Societies. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 104-119.
  • Burg, Steven L (1995) ‘The International Community and the Yugoslav Crisis’, in M Esman and S Telhami (eds.) International Organizations and Ethnic Conflict. Ithica, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Campbell, David (1999) ‘Apartheid Cartography: The Political Anthropology and Spatial Effects of International Diplomacy in Bosnia’, Political Geography vol. 18 no. 4, pp.395-435.
  • Cassese, Antonio (1997) ‘The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and Human Rights’, European Human Rights Law Review vol. 4, pp. 329-352.
  • Cousens, Elizabeth M (2002) ‘From Missed Opportunities to Overcompensation: Implementing the Dayton Agreement on Bosnia’, in Stephen John Stedman, Donald Rothchild and Elizabeth M Cousens (eds.) Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, pp. 531-566.
  • Schvey, Aram A (2003) ‘Striving for Accountability in the Former Yugoslavia’, in Jane E Stromseth (ed.) Accountability for Atrocities: National and International Responses. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers.

Rwanda

  • Fierens, Jacques (2005) ‘Gacaca Courts: Between Fantasy and Reality’, Journal of International Criminal Justice vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 896-919 OR Schabas, William A (2005) ‘Genocide Trials and Gacaca Courts’, Journal of International Criminal Justice vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 879-895.
  • Melvern, Linda (2005) ‘The Security Council in the Face of Genocide’, Journal of International Criminal Justice vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 847-860 OR Carlsson, Ingvar (2005) ‘The UN Inadequacies’, Journal of International Criminal Justice vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 837-846 OR Dallaire, Romeo, Kishan Manocha and Nishan Degnarain (2005) ‘The Major Powers on Trial’, Journal of International Criminal Justice vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 861-878.
  • Khadiagala, Gilbert M (2002) ‘Implementing the Arusha Peace Agreement on Rwanda’, in Stedman, Stephen John, Donald Rothchild and Elizabeth M Cousens (eds.) Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements, Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
  • Reydams, Luc (2005), ‘The ICTR Ten Years On: Back to the Nuremberg Paradigm?’ Journal of International Criminal Justice vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 977-988. (On the reluctance to prosecute members of the RPF – now in government – for humanitarian crimes committed in Rwanda.)
  • Strain, Jason and Elizabeth Keyes (2003) ‘Accountability in the Aftermath of Rwanda’s Genocide’, in Jane E Stromseth (ed.) Accountability for Atrocities: National and International Responses. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers.

Supplementary Reading

Sri Lanka

  • Bastian, Sunil (1999) ‘The Failure of State Formation, Identity Conflict and Civil Society Responses – The Case of Sri Lanka’, Working Paper 2, Bradford: Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford [available from: http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/confres/papers/pdfs/CCR2.pdf].
  • Bose, Sumantra (2002) ‘Flawed Mediation, Chaotic Implementation: The 1987 Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Agreement’, in Stephen John Stedman, Donald Rothchild and Elizabeth M Cousens (eds.) Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
  • Bush, Kenneth D (2003) The Intra-Group Dimensions of Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka: Learning to Read between the Lines. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (chpts 8-9).
  • Clarance, William (2007) Ethnic Warfare in Sri Lanka and the UN Crisis. London: Pluto Press (chpt 15).
  • de Silva, K M (1993) ‘The Making of the Indo-Sri Lanka Accord: The Final Phase – June-July 1987’, in K M de Silva and S W R de A Samarasinghe (eds.) Peace Accords and Ethnic Conflict. London: Pinter, pp. 112-155.
  • Edrisinha, Rohan, ‘Trying Times: Constitutional Attempts to Resolve Armed Conflict in Sri Lanka’, in Liz Philipson (ed.) (1998) Demanding Sacrifice: War and Negotiation in Sri Lanka, Accord 4. London: Conciliation Resources, London in association with the Social Scientists Association, Colombo, pp. 28-36 [available, after signing up, from: http://www.c-r.org/our-work/accord/pdfs/index.php]. (See other chapters in this also.)
  • Goodhand, Jonathan and Nick Lewer (1999) ‘Sri Lanka: NGOs and Peace-Building in Complex Political Emergencies’, Third World Quarterly vol. 20 no. 1, pp. 69-87.
  • Hannum, Hurst (1996) Autonomy, Sovereignty and Self-Determination: The Accommodation of Conflicting Rights. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, rev. edn (chpt. 14).
  • International Crisis Group (2007) Sri Lanka: Sinhala Nationalism and the Elusive Southern Consensus, Asia Report No. 141, Colombo/Brussels: ICG [available from: http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=5144&l=1].
  • International Institute for Strategic Studies (2009) ‘The Tamil Tigers’ Last Stand?’, Strategic Comments, vol. 15 no. 2, pp. 1-2.
  • Keethaponcalan, S I (2000) ‘Understanding the Ethnic Conflict and Peace Effort in Sri Lanka: A Conflict Resolution Perspective’, in Jayadeva Uyangoda (ed.) Conflict Resolution and Peace Studies: An Introductory Handbook. Colombo: Center for Policy Research and Analysis, pp. 78-95.
  • Kelegama, Saman (1999) ‘Economic Costs of Conflict in Sri Lanka’, in Robert I Rotberg (ed.) Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, pp. 71-88.
  • Moolakkattu, John Stephen (2005) ‘Peace Facilitation by Small States: Norway in Sri Lanka’, Cooperation and Conflict vol. 40 no. 4, pp. 385-402.
  • Orjuela, Camilla (2003) ‘Building Peace in Sri Lanka: a Role for Civil Society?’, Journal Of Peace Research, vol. 40 no. 2, pp. 195-212.
  • Rajasingham-Senanayake, Darini (1999) ‘The Dangers of Devolution: The Hidden Economies of Armed Conflict’, in Robert I Rotberg (ed.) Creating Peace in Sri Lanka: Civil War and Reconciliation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press, pp. 57-69.
  • Saravanamuttu, Paikiasothy (2000) ‘Sri Lanka: The Intractability of Ethnic Conflict’, in J Darby and R MacGinty (eds.) The Management of Peace Processes. London: Macmillan.
  • Saravanamuttu, Paikiasothy (1998) ‘Sri Lanka: Civil Society, the Nation and the State-Building Challenge’, in Alison Van Rooy (ed.) Civil Society and the Aid Industry: The Politics and Promise. London: Earthscan, pp. 104-133.
  • Smith, Chris (2003) ‘In the Shadow of a Cease-fire: The Impacts of Small Arms Availability and Misuse in Sri Lanka’, Small Arms Survey Occasional Paper No. 11 [available from: http://www.smallarmssurvey.org/files/sas/publications/o_papers_pdf/2003-op11-sri_lanka.pdf].
  • Witharana, Dileepa (2002) ‘Community Peace Work in Sri Lanka: A Critical Appraisal’, Working Paper 12, Bradford: Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford [available from: http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/confres/papers/pdfs/CCR12.pdf].

Northern Ireland

  • (1995) ‘A State of Truce: Northern Ireland after Twenty-five Years of War’, Ethnic and Racial Studies, vol. 18 no. 4 (a special issue of this journal with various relevant articles).
  • Adams, Gerry (2004) Hope and History: Making Peace in Ireland. Mount Eagle Publications.
  • Arthur, Paul (1996) ‘Time, Territory, Tradition and the Anglo-Irish “Peace” Process’, Government and Opposition vol. 31 no. 4.
  • Bairner, Alan (1999) ‘Masculinity, Violence and the Irish Peace Process’, Capital & Class vol. 69 Autumn, pp. 125-144.
  • Bew, P and G Gillespie (1996) The Northern Ireland Peace Process 1993-1996: A Chronology. London: Serif.
  • Bew, Paul (2005) ‘The Belfast Agreement of 1998: From Ethnic Democracy to a Multicultural, Consociational Settlement?’, in Michael Cox, Adrian Guelke and Fiona Stephen (eds.), A Farewell to Arms? Beyond the Good Friday Agreement. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2nd edn.
  • Boyle, Kevin and Tom Hadden (1995) ‘The Peace Process in Northern Ireland’, International Affairs vol. 71 no. 2.
  • Brown, Kris and Corinna Hauswedell (2002) ‘Burying the Hatchet: The Decommissioning of Paramilitary Arms in Northern Ireland’, Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), Brief 22 [available from: http://www.bicc.de/uploads/pdf/publications/briefs/brief22/brief22.pdf].
  • Clarke, Liam (2003) Martin McGuinness: From Guns to Government. Mainstream Publishing.
  • Connolly, Linda (1999) ‘Feminist Politics and the Peace Process’, Capital & Class vol. 69 Autumn, pp. 145-159.
  • Darby, John (2005) ‘The Effects of Violence on the Irish Peace Process’, in Michael Cox, Adrian Guelke and Fiona Stephen (eds.) A Farewell to Arms? Beyond the Good Friday Agreement. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2nd edn.
  • Elliott, M (ed.) (2002) The Long Road to Peace in Northern Ireland: Peace Lectures from the Institute of Irish Studies at Liverpool University. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press (various chapters).
  • English, Richard (1996) ‘The Northern Ireland Peace Process Reconsidered’, Eire/Ireland vol. 31 nos. 3-4, pp. 270-278.
  • Farrington, Christopher (2006) Ulster Unionism and the Peace Process in Northern Ireland. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan (chpts 4-5 and conclusion).
  • Finlayson, Alan (1999) ‘Loyalist Political Identity After the Peace’, Capital & Class vol. 69 Autumn, pp. 47-75.
  • Gilligan, C and J Tonge (eds.) (1997) Peace or War? Understanding the Peace Process in Northern Ireland. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Gormally, Brian (2001), ‘Conversion from War to Peace: Reintegration of Ex-Prisoners in Northern Ireland’, Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), Paper 18 [available from: http://www.bicc.de/uploads/pdf/publications/papers/paper18/paper18.pdf].
  • Hayes, Bernadette C and Ian McAllister (2001) ‘Sowing Dragon’s Teeth: Public Support for Political Violence and Paramilitarism in Northern Ireland’, Political Studies vol. 49 no. 5, pp. 901-922.
  • Hennessey, Thomas (2000) The Northern Ireland Peace Process: Ending the Troubles? Dublin: Gill & Macmillan.
  • Keogh, Dermot and Michael Haltzel (eds.) (1993) Northern Ireland and the Politics of Reconciliation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lijphart, Arend (1996) ‘The Framework Document on Northern Ireland and the Theory of Power-Sharing’, Government and Opposition vol. 31 no. 3, pp. 267-274.
  • MacGinty, Roger and John Darby (2001) Guns and Government: The Management of the Northern Ireland Peace Process. London: Palgrave.
  • McGarry, John (1998) ‘Political Settlements in Northern Ireland and South Africa’, Political Studies vol. 46 no. 5.
  • Mansergh, Martin (2005) ‘The Background to the Irish Peace Process’, in Michael Cox, Adrian Guelke and Fiona Stephen (eds.) A Farewell to Arms? Beyond the Good Friday Agreement. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2nd edn.
  • Mitchell, Paul, ‘Futures’, in Paul Mitchell and Rick Wilford (eds.) (1999) Politics in Northern Ireland. Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview Press, pp. 265-284.
  • Northern Ireland Office (1998) The Belfast Agreement: An Agreement Reached at the Multi-Party Talks on Northern Ireland. London: Stationery Office. (Text of the Agreement itself.)
  • O’Doherty, Malachi (1998) The Trouble with Guns: Republican Strategy and the Provisional IRA. Belfast: Blackstaff.
  • O’Duffy, Brendan (1993) ‘Containment or Regulation? The British Approach to Ethnic Conflict in Northern Ireland’, in John McGarry and Brendan O’Leary (eds.) The Politics of Ethnic Conflict Regulation: Case Studies of Protracted Ethnic Conflicts. London: Routledge.
  • O’Hearn, Denis and Sam Porter (1999) ‘Turning Agreement to Process: Republicanism and Change in Ireland’, Capital & Class vol. 69 Autumn, pp. 7-25.
  • O’Leary, Brendan (1989) ‘Limits to Coercive Consociationalism in Northern Ireland’, Political Studies vol. 37, pp 562-588.
  • O’Leary, Brendan and John McGarry (1996) The Politics of Antagonism: Understanding Northern Ireland. London and Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Athlone, 2nd edn (chpts 8-11).
  • Ruane, Joseph and Jennifer Todd (2001) ‘The Politics of Transition? Explaining Political Crises in the Implementation of the Belfast Good Friday Agreement’, Political Studies vol. 49 no. 5, pp. 923-940.
  • Shirlow, Peter and Ian Shuttleworth (1999) ‘“Who is Going to Toss the Burgers?” Social Class and the Reconstruction of the Northern Irish Economy’, Capital & Class vol 69 Autumn.
  • Stewart, Paul (1999) ‘The Good Friday Agreement, the Decommissioning of IRA Weapons and the Unionist Veto’, Capital & Class vol. 69 Autumn, pp. 1-25.
  • Stewart, Paul (1999) ‘Northern Ireland Between Peace and War?’, Capital & Class vol. 69 Autumn, pp. vi-xiv.
  • Taylor, Rupert (1994) ‘A Consociational Path to Peace in Northern Ireland and South Africa?’, in A Guelke (ed.) New Perspectives on the Northern Ireland Conflict. Aldershot: Avebury.
  • Todd, Jennifer (1999) ‘Nationalism, Republicanism and the Good Friday Agreement’, in Joseph Ruane and Jennifer Todd (eds.) After the Good Friday Agreement: Analysing Political Change in Northern Ireland. Dublin: University College Dublin Press.
  • Todd, Jennifer (1995) ‘Equality, Plurality and Democracy: Justifications of Proposed Constitutional Settlements of the Northern Ireland Conflict’, Ethnic and Racial Studies vol. 18 no. 4.
  • von Tangen Page, Michael (2005) ‘A “most difficult and unpalatable part” – the Release of Politically Motivated Violent Offenders’, in Michael Cox, Adrian Guelke and Fiona Stephen (eds.) A Farewell to Arms? Beyond the Good Friday Agreement. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2nd edn.
  • Ward, Margaret (1995) ‘Finding a Place: Women and the Irish Peace Process’, Race and Class vol. 37 no. 1, pp. 41-50.
  • Wilford, Rick (1999) ‘Epilogue’, in Paul Mitchell and Rick Wilford (eds.) Politics in Northern Ireland. Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview Press, pp. 285-303. (Covers the Good Friday Agreement, referenda and election of the assembly.)
  • Wilford, Rick (1999) ‘Regional Assemblies and Parliament’, in Paul Mitchell and Rick Wilford (eds.) Politics in Northern Ireland. Boulder, CO and Oxford: Westview Press, pp. 117-141. (Shows that consociational thinking has informed almost all government attempts at a solution.)
  • Wright, Frank (1987) Northern Ireland: A Comparative Analysis. Dublin and London: Gill and Macmillan (chpts 8-9).

The Former Yugoslavia

  • Abdela, Lesley (2003) ‘Kosovo: Missed Opportunities, Lessons for the Future’, Development in Practice, vol. 13 no. 2/3, pp. 208-216.
  • Andreas, Peter (2008) Blue Helmets and Black Markets: The Business of Survival in the Siege of Sarajevo. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Bose, S (2002) Bosnia after Dayton: Nationalist Partition and International Intervention. London: Hurst.
  • Chandler, D (2000) Bosnia: Faking Democracy After Dayton. London: Pluto, 2nd edn.
  • Cousens, Elizabeth M (2001) Toward Peace in Bosnia: Implementing the Dayton Accords. Boulder, CO: Lynne Reinner.
  • Cushman, T and S Mestrovic (eds.) (1996) This Time We Knew: Western Responses to Genocide in Bosnia. New York: New York University Press.
  • Fetherston, A B (2000) ‘From Conflict Resolution to Transformative Peacebuilding: Reflections from Croatia’, Working Paper 4, Bradford: Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford [available from: http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/confres/papers/pdfs/CCR4.pdf].
  • Goebel, Christopher M (1993) ‘Population Transfer, Humanitarian Law, and the Use of Ground Force in U.N. Peacemaking: Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Wake of Iraq’, New York University Journal of International Law and Politics, vol. 25 no. 3, pp. 627–698.
  • Gow, J (1997) Triumph of the Lack of Will: International Diplomacy and the Yugoslav War. London: Hurst.
  • Heinemann-Grüder, Andreas, Tobias Pietz and Shay Duffy (2003) ‘Turning Soldiers into a Work Force: Demobilization and Reintegration in Post-Dayton Bosnia and Herzegovina’, Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), Brief 27 [available from: http://www.bicc.de/uploads/pdf/publications/briefs/brief27/brief27.pdf].
  • Heinemann-Grüder, Andreas and Wolf-Christian Paes (2001) ‘Wag the Dog: The Mobilization and Demobilization of the Kosovo Liberation Army’, Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), Brief 20 [available from: http://www.bicc.de/uploads/pdf/publications/briefs/brief20/brief20.pdf].
  • Jones, John R W D (2000) The Practice of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, 2nd edn.
  • Lang, Anthony Jr. (2003) ‘The United Nations and the Fall of Srebrenica: Meaningful Responsibility and International Society’, in Toni Erskine (ed.) Can Institutions Have Responsibilities? Collective Moral Agency and International Relations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Llamazares, Monica and Laina Reynolds Levy (2003) ‘NGOs and Peacebuilding in Kosovo’, Working Paper 13, Bradford: Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford [available from: http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/confres/papers/pdfs/CCR13.pdf].
  • Morris, Virginia and Michael P Scharf (1995) An Insider’s Guide to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: A Documentary History and Analysis (2 volumes). Irvington-on-Hudson: Transnational.
  • Niarchos, Catherine N (1995) ‘Women, War, and Rape: Challenges Facing the International Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia’, Human Rights Quarterly vol. 17 no. 4, pp. 649-690.
  • Peake, Gordon (2005) ‘Power Sharing in a Police Car: The Intractable Difficulty of Police Reform in Kosovo and Macedonia’, in Sid Noel (ed.) (2005) From Power Sharing to Democracy: Post-conflict Institutions in Ethnically Divided Societies. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, pp. 120-139.
  • Pickering, Paula M (2007) Peacebuilding in the Balkans: The View from the Ground Floor. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
  • Pietz, Tobias and Marc Remillard (2005) ‘Demobilizing and Retraining for the Future: The Armed Forces in Serbia and Montenegro’, Bonn International Center for Conversion (BICC), Brief 31 [available from: http://www.bicc.de/uploads/pdf/publications/briefs/brief31/brief31.pdf].
  • Ramet, S P (1991) ‘The Yugoslav Crisis and the West: Avoiding ‘Vietnam’ and Blundering into ‘Abyssinia’, East European Politics and Societies vol. 8 Winter, pp. 189-219.
  • Rieff, D (1995) Slaughterhouse: Bosnia and the Failure of the West. New York: Simon and Schuster.
  • Sokolovic, Dzemal, and Bieber, Florian (eds.) (2001) Reconstructing Multiethnic Societies: The Case of Bosnia-Herzegovina. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Stovel, Laura (2000) ‘Confronting Ethnic Chauvinism in a Post-War Environment: NGO’s and Peace Education in Bosnia’, Working Paper 7, Bradford: Centre for Conflict Resolution, Department of Peace Studies, University of Bradford [available from: http://www.brad.ac.uk/acad/confres/papers/pdfs/CCR7.pdf].
  • *See also ICTY website: http://www.un.org/icty

Rwanda

  • Amnesty International (2002) Rwanda: Gacaca: A Question of Justice. AI Report: Index AFR 47/007/2002, Dec [available from AI website: http://web.amnesty.org/library/pdf/AFR470072002ENGLISH/$File/AFR4700702.pdf].
  • Amnesty International (2004) Rwanda: The Enduring Legacy of the Genocide and War. AI Report: Index AFR 47/008/2004 [available from AI website: http://web.amnesty.org/library/pdf/AFR470082004ENGLISH/$File/AFR4700804.pdf].
  • Amnesty International (2000) Rwanda: The Troubled Course of Justice. AI Report: Index AFR 47/10/00, April [available from AI website: http://web.amnesty.org/library/pdf/AFR470102000ENGLISH/$File/AFR4701000.pdf].
  • Askin, Kelly Dawn (2005), ‘Gender Crimes Jurisprudence in the ICTR: Positive Developments’, Journal of International Criminal Justice vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 1007-1018.
  • Clapham, C (1998) ‘Rwanda: The Perils of Peacemaking’, Journal of Peace Research, vol. 35 no. 2, pp. 193-210. (Looks at international conflict resolution intervention and the Arusha accords as factors contributing to the 1994 genocide.)
  • Dallaire, Lieutenant-General Roméo with Brent Beardsley (2003) Shake Hands with the Devil: The Failure of Humanity in Rwanda. Toronto: Random House Canada.
  • Eriksson, J (1996) The International Response to Conflict and Genocide: Lessons from the Rwanda Experience (Volume 5: Synthesis Report). Copenhagen: The Committee [in oversize section of library].
  • Fein, Helen (1994) ‘Patrons, Prevention and Punishment of Genocide: Observations on Bosnia and Rwanda’, in Helen Fein (ed.) The Prevention of Genocide: Rwanda and Yugoslavia Reconsidered. New York: The Institute for the Study of Genocide.
  • Harrell, Peter E (2003) Rwanda’s Gamble: Gacaca and a New Model of Transitional Justice. Lincoln, NE: Writers Club Press (chpts 2-4).
  • Jones, John R W D (2000) The Practice of the International Criminal Tribunals for the former Yugoslavia and Rwanda. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers, 2nd edn.
  • Klinghoffer, A J (1998) The International Dimension of Genocide in Rwanda. Basingstoke: Macmillan.
  • Kroslak, Daniela (2003) ‘The Responsibility of Collective External Bystanders in Cases of Genocide: The French in Rwanda’, in Toni Erskine (ed.) Can Institutions Have Responsibilities? Collective Moral Agency and International Relations. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
  • Kuperman, Alan J (2001) The Limits of Humanitarian Intervention: Genocide in Rwanda. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
  • Mackintosh, Anne (1996) ‘The International Response to Conflict and Genocide: Lessons from the Rwanda Experience’, Journal of Refugee Studies, vol. 9 no. 3, pp. 334-342.
  • Magnarella, Paul J (2000) Justice in Africa: Rwanda’s Genocide, Its Courts, and the UN Criminal Tribunal. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Melvern, Linda (2000) A People Betrayed: The Role of the West in Rwanda’s Genocide. London: Zed.
  • Morris, Virginia and Michael P Scharf (1998) The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Irvington-on-Hudson, NY: Transnational Publishers.
  • Møse, Erik (2005) ‘Main Achievements of the ICTR’, Journal of International Criminal Justice vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 920-943.
  • Nsanzuwera, Francois-Xavier (2005), ‘The ICTR Contribution to National Reconciliation’, Journal of International Criminal Justice vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 944-949.
  • O’Halloran, P J (1995) Humanitarian Intervention and the Genocide in Rwanda. Royal Institute for the Study of Conflict and Terrorism.
  • Shraga, D and R Zacklin (1996) ‘The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda’, European Journal of International Law vol. 7 no. 4, pp. 501-518.
  • Uvin, P (1998) Aiding Violence: The Development Enterprise in Rwanda. Kumarian Press.
  • *See also ICTR website: http://www.ictr.org/ and SURF: http://www.survivors-fund.org.uk/index.php


Term 2, Week 20

Healing Deeply Divided Societies: Reconciliation and Moving Forward

  • *Note: This final substantive session will not be run as a lecture but more as an interactive seminar bringing the class together in the lecture time. You will work in small groups and have the chance to share ideas with people from different seminar groups. You should be aiming to bring the knowledge you now have about our case studies to bear on these theoretical concerns, which interrelate with issues you have been considering throughout the course of this module.

Seminar Questions:

  • Discuss the contested relationship between truth and justice in terms of the reconciliation process.
  • Discuss the role of collective memory in reconciliation and healing after violent ethno-national conflict.
  • Is an enduring ‘positive peace’ (Galtung) possible without reconciliation?

Core Reading

  • Hamber, Brandon (2002) ‘Transformation and Reconciliation’, in J Darby and R MacGinty (eds.) Contemporary Peacemaking: Conflict, Violence and Peace Processes. London: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 224-234.
  • Hayner, Priscilla N (2002) Unspeakable Truths: Facing the Challenge of Truth Commissions. New York: Routledge (esp. chapters on ‘Truth versus Justice’, ‘Healing from the Past’, and ‘An Eye to the Future’).
  • Kiss, Elizabeth (2000) ‘Moral Ambition Within and Beyond Political Constraints: Reflections on Restorative Justice’, in Robert I Rotberg and Dennis Thompson (eds.) Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 68-98.
  • Lederach, John Paul (1998) Building Peace: Sustainable Reconciliation in Divided Societies. United States Institute of Peace.
  • Minow, Martha (2000) ‘The Hope for Healing: What Can Truth Commissions Do?’, in Robert I Rotberg and Dennis Thompson (eds.) Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 235-260.
  • Pankhurst, Donna (1999) ‘Issues of Justice and Reconciliation in Complex Political Emergencies: Conceptualising Reconciliation, Justice and Peace’, Third World Quarterly vol. 20 no. 1, pp. 239-256. (Recommended article.)
  • Rotberg, Robert I (2000) ‘Truth Commissions and the Provision of Truth, Justice, and Reconciliation’, in Robert I Rotberg and Dennis Thompson (eds.) Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 3-21.

Supplementary Reading

  • Arthur, Paul (2002) ‘Conflict, Memory and Reconciliation’, in M Elliott (ed.) The Long Road to Peace in Northern Ireland: Peace Lectures from the Institute of Irish Studies at Liverpool University. Liverpool: Liverpool University Press.
  • Blewitt, Graham T (2003) ‘Justice in International and Mixed Law Courts: The International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda’, in Mark Lattimer and Philippe Sands (eds.) Justice for Crimes against Humanity. Oxford: Hart.
  • Cassese, Antonio (1997) ‘The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia and Human Rights’, European Human Rights Law Review vol. 4, pp. 329-352.
  • Chirwa, Wiseman (1997) ‘Collective Memory and the Process of Reconciliation and Reconstruction’, Development in Practice, vol. 7 no. 4, pp. 479-482.
  • du Toit, André (2000) ‘The Moral Foundations of the South African TRC: Truth as Acknowledgment and Justice as Recognition’, in Robert I Rotberg and Dennis Thompson (eds.) Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 122-140.
  • Fatic, Aleksandar (1999) Reconciliation via the War Crimes Tribunal? Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Harrell, Peter E (2003) Rwanda’s Gamble: Gacaca and a New Model of Transitional Justice. Lincoln, NE: Writers Club Press (chpts 2-4).
  • Hayner, Priscilla (1996) ‘Commissioning the Truth: Further Research Questions’, Third World Quarterly, vol. 17 no. 1, pp. 19-29.
  • Hayner, Priscilla (1994) ‘Fifteen Truth Commissions – 1974 to 1994: A Comparative Study’, Human Rights Quarterly, vol. 16 no. 4, pp. 597-655 (parts I-II, Rwanda bit in part III, & part IV).
  • Keogh, Dermot and Michael Haltzel (eds.) (1993) Northern Ireland and the Politics of Reconciliation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Lie, Tove Grete, Helga Malmin Binningsbø and Scott Gates (2006) ‘Post-Conflict Justice and Sustainable Peace’, paper presented at PAC workshop, Nicosia, Cyprus, 26-29 April [available from PRIO website: http://www.prio.no/files/file47830_post_conflict_justice_and_sustainable_peace.pdf].
  • Magnarella, Paul J (2000) Justice in Africa: Rwanda’s Genocide, Its Courts, and the UN Criminal Tribunal. Aldershot: Ashgate.
  • Minow, Martha (1998) Between Vengeance and Forgiveness: Facing History after Genocide and Mass Violence. Boston, MA: Beacon Press (esp. chpts 2-4).
  • Neuffer, Elizabeth (2002) The Key to My Neighbour’s House: Seeking Justice in Bosnia and Rwanda. London: Bloomsbury.
  • Nsanzuwera, Francois-Xavier (2005), ‘The ICTR’s Contribution to National Reconciliation’, Journal of International Criminal Justice vol. 3 no. 4, pp. 944-949.
  • Porter, Elisabeth (2007) Peacebuilding: Women in International Perspective. London: Routledge (chpts 4 on justice & compassion, 5 on memory & truth and 6 on reconciliation & difference).
  • Putnam, Tonya L (2002) ‘Human Rights and Sustainable Peace’, in Stedman, Stephen John, Donald Rothchild and Elizabeth M Cousens (eds.) Ending Civil Wars: The Implementation of Peace Agreements. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.
  • Rombouts, Heidy (2004) Victim Organisations and the Politics of Reparation: A Case-Study on Rwanda. Antwerp: Intersentia.
  • Samaddar, Ranabir and Helmut Reifeld (eds.) (2001) Peace as Process: Reconciliation and Conflict Resolution in South Asia. Manohar Publishers.
  • Schvey, Aram A (2003) ‘Striving for Accountability in the Former Yugoslavia’, in Jane E Stromseth (ed.) Accountability for Atrocities: National and International Responses. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers.
  • Sideris, Tina (2001) ‘Problems of Identity, Solidarity and Reconciliation’ in Sheila Meintjes, Anu Pillay and Meredeth Turshen (eds.) The Aftermath: Women in Post-Conflict Transformation. London: Zed Books, pp. 46-62.
  • Slye, Ronald C (2000) ‘Amnesty, Truth, and Reconciliation: Reflections on the South African Amnesty Process’, in Robert I Rotberg and Dennis Thompson (eds.) Truth v. Justice: The Morality of Truth Commissions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, pp. 170-188.
  • Strain, Jason and Elizabeth Keyes (2003) ‘Accountability in the Aftermath of Rwanda’s Genocide’, in Jane E Stromseth (ed.) Accountability for Atrocities: National and International Responses. Ardsley, NY: Transnational Publishers.

See also websites: