Below are some additional web-based resources that are not necessarily on the reading list.
1 What is secret intelligence?
P. Davies, 'Ideas of Intelligence: Divergent Concepts and National Institutions', Harvard International Review 24, 3 (2002): 62-66
D. Omand, 'Reflections on Secret Intelligence' in Peter Hennessy (ed.), The New Protective State pp.97-122. Available here as the text of a Gresham Lecture.
K.G. Robertson, 'Intelligence, Terrorism and Civil Liberties,' Conflict Quarterly 7/2 (1987): 43-50 - see especially p.47
G. F. Treverton, Seth G. Jones, Steven Boraz, Phillip Lipscy, Toward a Theory of Intelligence Workshop Report, RAND
M. Warner, 'Wanted: A Definition of '"Intelligence" ', Studies in Intelligence 46, 3 (2002): 15-22.
...and specifically on typologies, culture and ethnocentrism
Thomas Bruneau and Kenneth Dombroski, “Reforming Intelligence: The Challenge of Control in New Democracies,” in Thomas Bruneau and Scott Tollefson, (eds.) Who Guards the Guardians and How: Democratic Civil-Military Relations (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2006).
B: FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE
2 In the field: the gritty problems of collection
Stephen Mercado, 'A Venerable Source in a New Era: Sailing the Sea of OSINT in the Information Age', Studies in Intelligence 48/3 (2004): 45-55.
Mark Lowenthal, 'Intelligence Collection in Transition', World Politics Review, 2 February 2009.
Sir David Omand, Kings College London, 'Optimising At The Margin: Sir Michael Quinlan On Intelligence Requirements', CIISS Conference 14 May 2011.
Michael J. Sulick. 'Human Intelligence', Spring 2007, Q&A session at Seminar on Intelligence, Command,and Control, Center for Information Policy Research, Harvard University.
Documentary "Echelon - The World's Most Secret Spy System", History Channel, 2005.
3 Estimates and interpretation: the problems of analysis
Myriam Dunn Cavelty and Victor Mauer, ‘Postmodern Intelligence: Strategic Warning in an Age of Reflexive Intelligence’, Security Dialogue, 40/2 (2009): 123-144.
Carmen Medina, 'What To Do When Traditional Models Fail', Studies in Intelligence 46/3 (2002): 23-9. (See the response by Ward below)
S.R. Ward, 'Evolution Beats Revolution in Analysis', Studies in Intelligence 46/3 (2002): 29-36.
4 Intelligence at the top: producer-consumer linkage
PRM-NSC11, an interesting presidential document reviewing US intelligence in 1977 which illustrates many of the issues we discuss in lectures and seminars in weeks 1-5
Or Honig, 'Surprise Attacks—Are They Inevitable? Moving Beyond the Orthodox-Revisionist Dichotomy', Security Studies, 17/1 (2008): 72 — 106.
Robert Jervis, 'Why Intelligence and Policymakers Clash', Political Science Quarterly, 25/2 (2010): 185-206.
5 Liaison: the delicate diplomacy of intelligence
R.J. Aldrich, 'Transatlantic intelligence and security co-operation', International Affairs, 80/3 (July 2004): 331-55.
R.J. Aldrich, 'Intelligence co-operation in practice' an uncorrected proof of a paper for the Norwegian parliamentary intelligence oversight body.
Eveline Hertzberger, 'Counter-Terrorist Intelligence Co-operation in the European Union', UNICRI Report 2007.
W. Rosenau, 'Liaisons Dangereuses? Transatlantic Intelligence Co-operation and the Global War on Terrorism', in Co-operating Against Terrorism: EU-US Relations Post September 11--Conference Proceedings (Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish National Defence College, 2007) pp.31-40.
Warren Tucker, 'Co-operative Intelligence', Opening Address – Superstructure Group Intelligence Seminar, Wellington, 23 May 2007.
David Ignatius, 'In the Middle East, a Catch-22 for the CIA', Washington Post, 10 February 2011.
6 Reading Week: No Lectures
C: COUNTER-TERRORISM AND SECURITY
7 9/11 - What kind of failure?
David Corn, 'When 9/11 Conspiracy Theories Go Bad', ZNet, 1 March 2002.
Barbara A. Grewe, Senior Counsel for Special Projects, 'Legal Barriers to Information Sharing:The Erection of a Wall Between Intelligence and Law Enforcement Investigations', Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States, Staff Monograph, August 20, 2004, declassified 29 May 2009.
Paul Pillar, 'Intelligent Design? The Unending Saga of Intelligence Reform', Foreign Affairs, March/April 2008. This is Pillar's review of Amy Zegart's book - Spying Blind - and their subsequent correspondence.
8 Proliferation and WMD - the Iraq Case
Tom Blanton, A Classified CIA Me Culpa on Iraqi WMD, Foreign Policy, 5 September 2012.
Butler Report, 'Review of Intelligence on Weapons of Mass Destruction', 14 July 2004, HC 898.
David Isenberg, 'See, Speak, and Hear No Incompetence: An Analysis of the Findings of The Commission on the Intelligence Capabilities of the United States Regarding Weapons of Mass Destruction', BASIC Report 2005.
Philip H.J. Davies, 'A Critical Look at Britains' Spy Machinery: Collection and Analysis on Iraq', Studies in Intelligence 49/4 (2007).
Robert Jervis, 'Intelligence & WMD: Reports, Politics, and Intelligence Failures: The Case of Iraq’, The Journal of Strategic Studies, 29/1 (2006): 3 – 52.
Brian Jones, 'Intelligence, Verification and Iraq’s WMD’, in Verification Yearbook 2004 (London: Vertic, 2004).
Report on the U.S. Intelligence Community's Prewar Intelligence Assessments on Iraq [Includes Appendices and Statements by Senate Intelligence Committee Members], Classification Excised, Report, 7 July 2004, 524 pp
9 Intelligence and counter-terrorism: the liberal state
Sir David Omand talks about his book Securing the State to the Mile End Group, 5 July 2010
Dame Elizah Manningham-Buller, 'Reflections on Intelligence' at the Mile End Group, 9 March 2010
10 Intelligence and counter-terrorism: the market state
Peter Chalk, William Rosenau, 'Confronting "the Enemy Within" Security Intelligence, the Police, and Counterterrorism in Four Democracies', RAND MG-100-RC, 2004.
Sir David Omand, 'The National Security Strategy: Implications for the UK Intelligence Community', A discussion paper for the IPPR Commission on National Security for the 21st Century, February 2009.
Martin Innes, 'Policing Uncertainty: Countering Terrorism Through Community Intelligence and Democratic Policing', The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 605 (May 2006): 1-20.
11 Intelligence and Tyranny: the non-democratic state
P. Holquist, 'Information Is the Alpha and Omega of Our Work": Bolshevik Surveillance in Its Pan-European Context', The Journal of Modern History, 69, 3 (1997): 415-450.
Maria Los, 'The Technologies of Total Domination', Surveillance & Society 2/1 (2004): 15-38.
Yuri Durhinikov, 'Informer 001: The Myth of Pavlik Mozorov', (translated by Sonia Melnikova).
D: CONTROLLING INTELLIGENCE
12 The problems of accountability and democratic control
GREEN PAPER - For ESSAY QUESTION 12a - Sir Malcolm Rifkind is interviewed for Civil Service Network.
Arar Commission, A New Review Mechanism For The RCMP’s National Security Activities: Commissionof Inquiry into the Actions of Canadian Officials in Relation to Maher Arar (Ottawa: Minstry of Public Works, 2006).
Hans Born and Ian Leigh, 'Democratic Accountability of Intelligence Services', Policy Paper No.19, Geneva Centre for the Democratic Control of Armed Forces.
Peter Gill, 'Democratic and Parliamentary Accountability of Intelligence Services after September 11th'. Working Paper No.103, Geneva Centre for Democratic Control of Armed Forces.
Ministerial Review Commission on Intelligence, South Africa, 'Intelligence in a Constitutional Democracy', Final Report to the Minister for Intelligence Services the Honourable Mr Ronnie Kasrils MP, 10 September 2008.
T. Wetzling, 'The Democratic Control of Intergovernmental Intelligence Cooperation (DCAF Working Paper No. 165), 2006.
Matteo M. Winkler, 'When "Extraordinary" Means Illegal: International law and the European Reactions to the United States Rendition Program', Yale Law School, Yale Law School Student Scholarship Series, Paper 46 (2007).
Portugal's Oversight Committee - Conselho de Fiscalização do Sistema de Informações da República Portuguesa (CFSIRP) usefully provides links to all other oversight committees here.
The is little literature on "in house" inquiry mechanisms like the CIA Inspector General - but here is a recent in depth press story on the subject ->
‘At CIA, grave mistakes, then promotions’ by ADAM GOLDMAN and MATT APUZZO, Associated Press, Wed 9 Feb 2011
On the role of international courts see ->
NICHOLAS KULISH, 'Court Finds Rights Violation in C.I.A. Rendition Case', New York Times, 13 December 2012.
13 The problems of civil rights and intelligence
Francesca Bignami, 'European Versus American Liberty: A Comparative Privacy Analysis of Anti-Terrorism Data-Mining', Boston College Law Review, 48, 609 (May 2007).
James A. Baker, 'The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act', September 2007, A Q&A session at the Seminar on Intelligence, Command and Control, Center for Information Policy Research, Harvard University.
Louise I. Gerdes (ed.) Current Controversies: Espionage and Intelligence Gathering (Farmington: Greenhaven, 2004).
David Lyon talks about surveillance and society at the University of Sydney, 48 minutes, 1 March 2012.
James Sheptycki, 'High Policing in the Security Control Society' Policing, 1/1 (2007): 70–79.
14 Ethics and espionage
Louise I. Gerdes (ed.) Current Controversies: Espionage and Intelligence Gathering (Farmington: Greenhaven, 2004).
David L. Perry, 'Repugnant Philosophy: Ethics, Espionage, and Covert Action,' Journal of Conflict Studies, 15/1 (1995): 92–115.
15 Torture and assassination
B. Berkowitz, 'Is Assassination an Option?', Hoover Digest (2002), 1.
Alan Dershowitz, 'Should We Fight Terror with Torture?', The Independent, 3 July 2006.
John Goetz and Britta Sandberg, 'CIA Outsourced Development of Interrogation Plan', Der Spiegel, 13 May 2009.
Michael Hayden and Michael B. Mukasey, 'The President Ties His Own Hands on Terror: The point of interrogation is intelligence, not confession', Wall Street Journal, 17 April 2009.
Testimony of Michael Scheuer on rendition, House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress First Session, 17 April 2007, Serial No. 110-28
Gal Luft, 'The Logic of Israel's Targeted Killing', Middle East Quarterly, 10/1 (Winter 2003).
Kenneth Roth, ‘Who Profits Most From Torture?’, Human Rights Watch, 13 July 2006.
Professor Philippe Sands (University College London) 'Torture and International Law and the War on Terror', speaking at CIISS, 13 May 2011.
Greg Sargent, 'Private letter from CIA chief undercuts claim torture was key to killing Bin Laden', Washington Post, 16 May 2011.
David Sussman, 'What's Wrong with Torture', powerpoint summary of his 2005 article in Philosophy and Public Affairs.
Philip Zelikow, 'A Dubious C.I.A. Shortcut', New York Times op-ed, April 23, 2009.
Oxford's Changing Character of War project has useful torture debate resources here.
16 Reading Week
E. INTELLIGENCE AND THE NEW WARFARE
17 Covert Action
Covert Action and Cultural Cold War
Alan Johnson, 'The Cultural Cold War: Faust Not the Pied Piper', New Politics, 8, (new series).
J. Petras, 'The CIA and the Cultural Cold War Revisited', Monthly Review, November 1999.
Covert Action and Democratic Peace
T. Barkawi, ‘War inside the Free World: The Democratic Peace and the Cold War in the Third World” in Tarak Barkawi and Mark Laffey (eds.) Democracy, Liberalism, and War: The Democratic Peace Debate (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Press, 2001), pp.107-128.
C.I. Clement, 'Enmity over Amity: US Belligerence toward Latin American Elected Governments', Presented at the International Studies Association 2008 Annual Conference.
J. Kim, 'Democratic Peace and Covert War: A Case Study of the U.S. Covert War in Chile;, Journal of International and Area Studies, 12/1, (2005): 25-47.
Mary Lauren Lilley and Alexander B. Downes, 'Covert Action, Democratic Peace , and the Cold War', Paper prepared for the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, San Francisco, CA, 26-29 March 2008.
18 Intelligence and Deception
Ernest S. Tavares, 'Operation Fortitude: The Closed Loop D-Day Deception Plan', A Research Report US Air Command and Staff College Air University, 2001.
19 Intelligence for NGOs and Peacekeeping
Melanie Ramjoué, 'Improving United Nations Intelligence: Lessons from the Field', GCSP Policy Paper n°19, August 2011
S. Chesterman, 'Shared Secrets: Intelligence and Collective Security', Lowy Institute, Paper 10 (2006)
S. Chesterman, The Spy Who Came In From The Cold War: Intelligence And International Law, Michigan Journal of International Law, 27 (Summer 2006):1077-1126.
Helene L. Boatner, 'Sharing and Using Intelligence in International Organizations: Some Guidelines', National Security and the Future, 1/1 (2000): 81-92.
F: THE FUTURE OF INTELLIGENCE
20 Intelligence in a globalising world
Zygmunt Bauman, 'Reconnaissance Wars of the Planetary Frontierland', Theory, Culture & Society, 19/4 (2002): 81–90.
Peter Gill, 'Not Just Joining the Dots But Crossing the Borders and Bridging the Voids: Constructing Security Networks after 11 September 2001', Policing & Society, 16/1 (2006): 27-49.
Simon Chesterman, 'We Can't Spy If We can't Buy!', AEL 2009/2 Academy of European Law.
Robert Steele, Human Intelligence: All Humans, All Minds, All the Time, Monograph, 2010, pp.123.
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