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Culture

Culture

Culture consists of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behaviour acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their embodiment in artifacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e. historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be considered as products of action, on the other, as conditional elements of future action

(Kroeber & Kluckhohn 1952: 181; cited by Adler 1997: 14), [Anthropological]

Organisational culture is a set of shared mental and implicit assumptions that guide interpretation and action in organizations by defining appropriate behavior for various situations (Ravasi and Schultz, 2006, amended), [Organisation Studies]


Notes
The Consortium agreed to include both definitions because they would be both useful for this project since definition 1 comes from an anthropology perspective and definition 2 from an organisation studies’ perspective. They were both endorsed by the Consortium.
We added implicit to the mental assumptions in the organizational culture definition to reflect the potential implicit assumptions that individuals have.