Provision of spaces for personal prayer and reflection has become a common phenomenon within historic churches and cathedrals in England and Wales, offering an example of devotional activity that operates largely outside that of traditional gathered congregations, but also in relationship with them. Over the past decade, the apSAFIP (the ap Siôn Analytic Framework for Intercessory Prayer) has been employed to examine the content of personal prayer requests left in various church-related locations, mapping similarities and differences in pray-ers' concerns. Building on this research tradition, the present study examines whether changes to physical environment in an Anglican cathedral in Wales has an effect on the personal prayer activity occurring within it, with a particular focus on intercessory prayer requests.
The design of products, services and spaces can influence what we think and do, and there is the potential for using design to promote sustainable behaviours. Most examples of behaviour change interventions have as setting Western and developed countries. Environmental damage affects people in diverse parts of the globe, and recently severe droughts caused water shortage in the most populous areas in Brazil. This paper reports on workshops conducted with Brazilian students as a way to foster the generation of ideas and development of strategies to promote sustainable behaviours regarding water use, and therefore reduce consumption and waste. The ideas proposed during these workshops were classified according to established models of design for behaviour change and sustainable behaviour, indicating the categories of the most frequent suggestions. Results demonstrated how the idea generation sessions were capable of producing interesting solutions to reduce consumption that could help to tackle the problem of water shortage. However, the short duration of these exercises meant that suggestions were limited in terms of scope and evaluation of impact. This paper indicates that design for behaviour change should be incorporated into regular curricula in Brazil in order to make future professionals and practitioners more familiar with these techniques and therefore more able to tackle their local and global environmental challenges.
We consider the action of a pseudo-Anosov mapping class on PML(S). This action has north-south dynamics and so, under iteration, laminations converge exponentially to the stable lamination. We study the rate of this convergence and give examples of families of pseudo-Anosov mapping classes where the rate goes to one, decaying exponentially with the word length. Furthermore we prove that this behaviour is the worst possible.
An automotive battery pack for use in electric vehicles consists of a large number of individual battery cells which are structurally held and electrically connected. Making the required electrical and structural joints represents several challenges, including, joining of multiple & thin highly conductive / reflective materials of varying thicknesses, potential damage (thermal, mechanical or vibrational) during joining, and a high joint durability requirement etc. This paper reviews applicability of major and emerging joining techniques to support the wide range of joining requirements that exist during battery pack manufacture. It identifies the advantages, disadvantages, limitations and concerns of the joining technologies. The maturity and application potential of current joining technologies are mapped with respect to Manufacturing Readiness Levels (MRLs). Further, a Pugh matrix is used to evaluate suitable joining candidates for cylindrical, pouch and prismatic cells by addressing the aforementioned challenges. Combining Pugh matrix scores, MRLs and application domains, this paper identifies the potential direction of automotive battery pack joining.
Objectives Bile acid diarrhoea (BAD) is an underdiagnosed condition producing diarrhoea, urgency and fear of faecal incontinence. How patients experience these symptoms has not previously been studied. Bile Acid Malabsorption (BAM) Support UK was established in 2015 as a national charity with objectives including to provide details regarding how BAD affects patients, to improve earlier recognition and clinical management.
Design, setting and main outcome A questionnaire was collected anonymously by BAM Support UK and the Bile Salt Malabsorption Facebook group over 4 weeks at the end of 2015. It comprised 56 questions and aimed to inform patients and clinicians about how BAD affects the respondents.
Results The first 100 responses were analysed. 91% of the respondents reported a diagnosis of BAD. 58% of total respondents diagnosed following a Selenium-homocholic acid taurine scan, 69% were diagnosed by a gastroenterologist, with type 2 and 3 BAD comprising 38% and 37%, respectively, of total respondents. Symptoms had been experienced for more than 5 years before diagnosis in 44% of respondents. Following treatment, usually with bile acid sequestrants, 60% of participants reported improvement of diarrhoea and most reported their mental health has been positively impacted. Just over half of the cohort felt as though their symptoms had been dismissed during clinical consultations and 28% felt their GPs were unaware of BAD.
Conclusions BAD requires more recognition by clinicians to address the current delays in diagnosis. Treatment improves physical and mental symptoms in the majority of participants.
The solidification sequence of Ta-rich Ta-Al-Fe alloys was examined under rapid freezing processes, arc melting and splat cooling techniques. It is found that loss of interfacial equilibrium results in an extended solubility of Al (up to 15 at. %) and a lower Fe content in primarily Ta phase (A2) in arc melted samples. Trapping of Al in the primary phase leads to a deviation of the solidification path from equilibrium prediction. When Al content is less than 10 at. % Al and Fe content is less than 4 at. % in the primary phase, the peritectic reaction, L + A2 → σ, is suppressed and instead the eutectic reaction, L → A2 + μ takes place following primary freezing. It is also found that under splat cooling conditions extended solute solubility occurs in μ phase formed via a eutectic reaction.
Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been widely used over recent years in the automotive industry to join lightweight aluminium structures. However, the extensive experimental trials needed to assess the feasible rivet/die combinations within a body in white assembly facility present a serious constraint for the application of this process on a large manufacturing scale. Therefore, having a virtual tool able to assess or predict the feasibility of a rivet/die combination is of primary importance for the automotive industry. In this study, a 2D axisymmetric model based on thermo-mechanical finite element analysis (FEA) was proposed to simulate the SPR process using material data determined at a strain rate of 1 s−1 and temperatures ranging from ambient to 300 °C. The increase in temperature due to friction and plastic deformation was numerically investigated using simufact.forming™ software. The effects of thermal softening and strain hardening at different strain rates were characterized for the substrate material (aluminium alloy AA5754) and their influence on the numerical simulation assessed. Accounting for these parameters led to a significantly higher level of correlation between simulation and experimental results for a number of different SPR joint configurations representative of industrial applications.
The objective of this chapter is to present a combined experimental-computational approach to develop a reliable nonlinear multi-scale model for the prediction of the nonlinear finite deformation of CNT/Epoxy nanocomposites under compressive loading. For this CNT/Epoxy samples of low CNT concentrations, and random CNT distribution and orientation were prepared and tested under quasi-static compressive loading. Then, the results were modelled by using the concept of the 3D Representative Volume Element (RVE), along with the Monte Carlo methodology for morphology reconstruction, and a physically-based constitutive polymer model for epoxy matrix. The developed nonlinear nanocomposite model accounts for the finite strain deformation of the matrix, interfacial interactions between the CNT and matrix, and the nanotube waviness. Predictions of the model are discussed in the context of the most influential nanocomposite parameters, and the comparison with experimental results.
There is evidence from observational studies that whole grains can have a beneficial effect on risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Earlier versions of this review found mainly short-term intervention studies. There are now longer-term randomised controlled trials (RCTs) available. This is an update and expansion of the original review conducted in 2007.
Objectives:The aim of this systematic review was to assess the effect of whole grain foods or diets on total mortality, cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular risk factors (blood lipids, blood pressure) in healthy people or people who have established cardiovascular disease or related risk factors, using all eligible RCTs.
We searched CENTRAL (Issue 8, 2016) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (1946 to 31 August 2016), Embase (1980 to week 35 2016), and CINAHL Plus (1937 to 31 August 2016) on 31 August 2016. We also searched ClinicalTrials.gov on 5 July 2017 and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP) on 6 July 2017. We checked reference lists of relevant articles and applied no language restrictions.
We selected RCTs assessing the effects of whole grain foods or diets containing whole grains compared to foods or diets with a similar composition, over a minimum of 12 weeks, on cardiovascular disease and related risk factors. Eligible for inclusion were healthy adults, those at increased risk of CVD, or those previously diagnosed with CVD.
Data collection and analysis:
Two review authors independently selected studies. Data were extracted and quality-checked by one review author and checked by a second review author. A second review author checked the analyses. We assessed treatment effect using mean difference in a fixed-effect model and heterogeneity using the I2 statistic and the Chi2 test of heterogeneity. We assessed the overall quality of evidence using GRADE with GRADEpro software.
We included nine RCTs randomising a total of 1414 participants (age range 24 to 70; mean age 45 to 59, where reported) to whole grain versus lower whole grain or refined grain control groups. We found no studies that reported the effect of whole grain diets on total cardiovascular mortality or cardiovascular events (total myocardial infarction, unstable angina, coronary artery bypass graft surgery, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, total stroke). All included studies reported the effect of whole grain diets on risk factors for cardiovascular disease including blood lipids and blood pressure. All studies were in primary prevention populations and had an unclear or high risk of bias, and no studies had an intervention duration greater than 16 weeks.
Overall, we found no difference between whole grain and control groups for total cholesterol (mean difference 0.07, 95% confidence interval -0.07 to 0.21; 6 studies (7 comparisons); 722 participants; low-quality evidence).
Using GRADE, we assessed the overall quality of the available evidence on cholesterol as low. Four studies were funded by independent national and government funding bodies, while the remaining studies reported funding or partial funding by organisations with commercial interests in cereals.
There is insufficient evidence from RCTs of an effect of whole grain diets on cardiovascular outcomes or on major CVD risk factors such as blood lipids and blood pressure. Trials were at unclear or high risk of bias with small sample sizes and relatively short-term interventions, and the overall quality of the evidence was low. There is a need for well-designed, adequately powered RCTs with longer durations assessing cardiovascular events as well as cardiovascular risk factors.
This thesis aims to answer questions on heterogeneity found in individual decision making owing to differences in preferences and motives.
In the first chapter I examine how individual's gender affects bargaining behaviour in an Ultimatum Game. I use a method of priming to make differences in gender roles salient. The results show that due to the prime, both men and women responder ask for a lower minimum acceptable offer when they are partnered with a male proposer, after controlling for personality traits, intelligence and risk preferences. Regardless of their gender, the prime influences behaviour of both men and women in a similar manner. Also, consistent with the literature, I find no significant difference in the Proposer behaviour.
The second chapter looks at the relationship between induced mood and cooperative behaviour in a repeated interaction using the Prisoner's Dilemma game. We find that players with an induced positive mood tend to cooperate less than players in a neutral mood setting. This difference is highest in settings with an uncertain number of repetitions and with no communication. We find that the difference is driven by both less accurate beliefs about partners' choices and a less rational reaction to these beliefs among the players in the positive mood treatment. This interpretation of the data is corroborated by a systematic analysis of the text used during communication.
The third chapter looks at the idea of multiple motives in social dilemma, using the Public Goods game and the Trust game. We look at the causal effect of mood, risk and beliefs, and find that people in positive mood put in more effort compared to people in neutral mood and perform better in the cognitive intelligence test. However, we find that mood in presence of ambiguity is overpowered by beliefs and decisions in public goods game and trust games are driven mostly by belief rather than participant's mood.
Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the most common cause of death globally, although mortality rates are falling. Psychological symptoms are prevalent for people with CHD, and many psychological treatments are offered following cardiac events or procedures with the aim of improving health and outcomes. This is an update of a Cochrane systematic review previously published in 2011.
To assess the effectiveness of psychological interventions (alone or with cardiac rehabilitation) compared with usual care (including cardiac rehabilitation where available) for people with CHD on total mortality and cardiac mortality; cardiac morbidity; and participant-reported psychological outcomes of levels of depression, anxiety, and stress; and to explore potential study-level predictors of the effectiveness of psychological interventions in this population.
We updated the previous Cochrane Review searches by searching the following databases on 27 April 2016: CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), PsycINFO (Ovid), and CINAHL (EBSCO).
We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of psychological interventions compared to usual care, administered by trained staff, and delivered to adults with a specific diagnosis of CHD. We selected only studies estimating the independent effect of the psychological component, and with a minimum follow-up of six months. The study population comprised of adults after: a myocardial infarction (MI), a revascularisation procedure (coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)), and adults with angina or angiographically defined coronary artery disease (CAD). RCTs had to report at least one of the following outcomes: mortality (total- or cardiac-related); cardiac morbidity (MI, revascularisation procedures); or participant-reported levels of depression, anxiety, or stress.
Data collection and analysis:
Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of all references for eligibility. A lead review author extracted study data, which a second review author checked. We contacted study authors to obtain missing information.
This review included 35 studies which randomised 10,703 people with CHD (14 trials and 2577 participants added to this update). The population included mainly men (median 77.0%) and people post-MI (mean 65.7%) or after undergoing a revascularisation procedure (mean 27.4%). The mean age of participants within trials ranged from 53 to 67 years. Overall trial reporting was poor, with around a half omitting descriptions of randomisation sequence generation, allocation concealment procedures, or the blinding of outcome assessments. The length of follow-up ranged from six months to 10.7 years (median 12 months). Most studies (23/35) evaluated multifactorial interventions, which included therapies with multiple therapeutic components. Ten studies examined psychological interventions targeted at people with a confirmed psychopathology at baseline and two trials recruited people with a psychopathology or another selecting criterion (or both). Of the remaining 23 trials, nine studies recruited unselected participants from cardiac populations reporting some level of psychopathology (3.8% to 53% with depressive symptoms, 32% to 53% with anxiety), 10 studies did not report these characteristics, and only three studies excluded people with psychopathology.
Moderate quality evidence showed no risk reduction for total mortality (risk ratio (RR) 0.90, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.77 to 1.05; participants = 7776; studies = 23) or revascularisation procedures (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.81 to 1.11) with psychological therapies compared to usual care. Low quality evidence found no risk reduction for non-fatal MI (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.64 to 1.05), although there was a 21% reduction in cardiac mortality (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.98). There was also low or very low quality evidence that psychological interventions improved participant-reported levels of depressive symptoms (standardised mean difference (SMD) -0.27, 95% CI -0.39 to -0.15; GRADE = low), anxiety (SMD -0.24, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.09; GRADE = low), and stress (SMD -0.56, 95% CI -0.88 to -0.24; GRADE = very low).
There was substantial statistical heterogeneity for all psychological outcomes but not clinical outcomes, and there was evidence of small-study bias for one clinical outcome (cardiac mortality: Egger test P = 0.04) and one psychological outcome (anxiety: Egger test P = 0.012). Meta-regression exploring a limited number of intervention characteristics found no significant predictors of intervention effects for total mortality and cardiac mortality. For depression, psychological interventions combined with adjunct pharmacology (where deemed appropriate) for an underlying psychological disorder appeared to be more effective than interventions that did not (β = -0.51, P = 0.003). For anxiety, interventions recruiting participants with an underlying psychological disorder appeared more effective than those delivered to unselected populations (β = -0.28, P = 0.03).
This updated Cochrane Review found that for people with CHD, there was no evidence that psychological treatments had an effect on total mortality, the risk of revascularisation procedures, or on the rate of non-fatal MI, although the rate of cardiac mortality was reduced and psychological symptoms (depression, anxiety, or stress) were alleviated; however, the GRADE assessments suggest considerable uncertainty surrounding these effects. Considerable uncertainty also remains regarding the people who would benefit most from treatment (i.e. people with or without psychological disorders at baseline) and the specific components of successful interventions. Future large-scale trials testing the effectiveness of psychological therapies are required due to the uncertainty within the evidence. Future trials would benefit from testing the impact of specific (rather than multifactorial) psychological interventions for participants with CHD, and testing the targeting of interventions on different populations (i.e. people with CHD, with or without psychopathologies).
Adolescent overweight and obesity has increased globally, and can be associated with short- and long-term health consequences. Modifying known dietary and behavioural risk factors through behaviour changing interventions (BCI) may help to reduce childhood overweight and obesity. This is an update of a review published in 2009. To assess the effects of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for the treatment of overweight or obese adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. We performed a systematic literature search in: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS, and the trial registers ClinicalTrials.gov and ICTRP Search Portal. We checked references of identified studies and systematic reviews. There were no language restrictions. The date of the last search was July 2016 for all databases. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of diet, physical activity and behavioural interventions for treating overweight or obesity in adolescents aged 12 to 17 years. Two review authors independently assessed risk of bias, evaluated the overall quality of the evidence using the GRADE instrument and extracted data following the guidelines of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We contacted trial authors for additional information. We included 44 completed RCTs (4781 participants) and 50 ongoing studies. The number of participants in each trial varied (10 to 521) as did the length of follow-up (6 to 24 months). Participants ages ranged from 12 to 17.5 years in all trials that reported mean age at baseline. Most of the trials used a multidisciplinary intervention with a combination of diet, physical activity and behavioural components. The content and duration of the intervention, its delivery and the comparators varied across trials. The studies contributing most information to outcomes of weight and body mass index (BMI) were from studies at a low risk of bias, but studies with a high risk of bias provided data on adverse events and quality of life.The mean difference (MD) of the change in BMI at the longest follow-up period in favour of BCI was -1.18 kg/m(2) (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.67 to -0.69); 2774 participants; 28 trials; low quality evidence. BCI lowered the change in BMI z score by -0.13 units (95% CI -0.21 to -0.05); 2399 participants; 20 trials; low quality evidence. BCI lowered body weight by -3.67 kg (95% CI -5.21 to -2.13); 1993 participants; 20 trials; moderate quality evidence. The effect on weight measures persisted in trials with 18 to 24 months' follow-up for both BMI (MD -1.49 kg/m(2) (95% CI -2.56 to -0.41); 760 participants; 6 trials and BMI z score MD -0.34 (95% CI -0.66 to -0.02); 602 participants; 5 trials).There were subgroup differences showing larger effects for both BMI and BMI z score in studies comparing interventions with no intervention/wait list control or usual care, compared with those testing concomitant interventions delivered to both the intervention and control group. There were no subgroup differences between interventions with and without parental involvement or by intervention type or setting (health care, community, school) or mode of delivery (individual versus group).The rate of adverse events in intervention and control groups was unclear with only five trials reporting harms, and of these, details were provided in only one (low quality evidence). None of the included studies reported on all-cause mortality, morbidity or socioeconomic effects.BCIs at the longest follow-up moderately improved adolescent's health-related quality of life (standardised mean difference 0.44 ((95% CI 0.09 to 0.79); P = 0.01; 972 participants; 7 trials; 8 comparisons; low quality of evidence) but not self-esteem.Trials were inconsistent in how they measured dietary intake, dietary behaviours, physical activity and behaviour. We found low quality evidence that multidisciplinary interventions involving a combination of diet, physical activity and behavioural components reduce measures of BMI and moderate quality evidence that they reduce weight in overweight or obese adolescents, mainly when compared with no treatment or waiting list controls. Inconsistent results, risk of bias or indirectness of outcome measures used mean that the evidence should be interpreted with caution. We have identified a large number of ongoing trials (50) which we will include in future updates of this review.
Volume 8, no. 3, e00353-17, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00353-17. The end of the first paragraph in the Acknowledgments reads "and the Technical University of Munich (TUM) in the framework of the Open Access Publishing Program." This is incorrect and should instead read "and RCUK (open access charges)."
The present study examined the long‐term efficacy of insulin pump therapy for type 1 diabetes patients when carried out using carbohydrate counting with bolus calculators for 1 year. A total of 22 type 1 diabetes patients who had just started continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion were examined and divided into two groups: one that was educated about carbohydrate counting using bolus calculators (n = 14); and another that did not use bolus calculators (n = 8). After 1 year, the hemoglobin A1c levels of the patient group that used bolus calculators decreased persistently and significantly (P = 0.0297), whereas those of the other group did not. The bodyweight, total daily dose of insulin and bolus percentage of both groups did not change. Carbohydrate counting using bolus calculators is necessary to achieve optimal and persistent glycemic control in patients undergoing continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion.
The spin Seebeck effect, a newly discovered phenomena, has been suggested as a potential 'game changer' for thermoelectric technology due to the possibility of separating the electric and thermal conductivities. This is due to a completely different device architecture where, instead of an arrangement of p- and n-type pillars between two ceramic blocks, a thermopile could be deposited directly onto a magnetic film of interest. Here we report on the spin Seebeck effect in polycrystalline Fe3O4:Pt bilayers deposited onto amorphous glass substrates with a view for economically viable energy harvesting. Crucially, these films exhibit large coercive fields (197 Oe) and retain 75% of saturation magnetisation, in conjunction with energy conversion comparable to epitaxially grown films. This demonstrates the potential of this technology for widespread application in harvesting waste heat for electricity.
Chapter One, A Forecast Rationality Test that Allows for Loss Function Asymmetries, proposes a new forecast rationality test that allows for asymmetric preferences without assuming any particular functional form for the forecaster's loss function. The construction of the test is based on the simple idea that under rationality, asymmetric preferences imply that the conditional bias of the forecast error is zero. The null hypothesis of forecast rationality under asymmetric loss (i.e. no conditional bias) is tested by constructing a Bierens [1982, 1990] conditional moment type test.
Chapter Two, Global Identification Failure in DSGE Models and its Impact on Forecasting, considers the identification problem in DSGE models and its transfer to other objects of interest such as point forecasts. The results document that when observationally equivalent parameter points belong to the same model structure, the implied point forecasts are the same under both correct specification and misspecification. However, when analyzing the identification problem permitting models with different structures (e.g. different policy rules that produce sets of data dynamics that are quantitatively similar), the paper shows that indistinguishable parameter estimates can lead to distinct predictions.
Chapter Three, Identification Robust Predictive Ability Testing, considers the predictive accuracy evaluation of models that are strongly identified in some part of the parameter space but non-identified or weakly identified in another part of the parameter space. The paper shows that when comparing the predictive ability of models that might be affected by identification deficiencies, the null distribution of out-of-sample predictive ability tests is not well approximated by the standard normal distribution. As a result, employing a standard (strong) identification critical value might lead to misleading inference. We propose methods to make the out-of-sample predictive ability tests robust to identification loss.