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QPP events catalogue

This page provides a list of currently known flaring Quasi-Periodic Pulsation (QPP) events, with links to relevant articles. Although we have tried to make this list as complete as possible, there will inevitably be gaps. This list will be regularly updated, and feedback is welcome.

Also available is a separate list of Doppler shift oscillations observed with the BCS on Yohkoh, compiled by John T. Mariska. Additionally a study of X-class flares using RHESSI data by Philip Crockett yielded this list of suspected QPP events. Also, 25 QPP events observed with OSO-5 in X-rays in 1969-1971, with periods in the range 10-100 s, are summarised in Lipa, Solar Phys., 57, 191, 1978.

Theoretically, QPP in solar flares can be either linked to MHD oscillations in the flaring region or in an external coronal plasma structure, or be connected with periodic regimes of magnetic reconnection, or perhaps with some combination of these mechanisms. In both cases, the oscillations provide us with a powerful tool for the diagnostics of the physical parameters in and about the flare sites, and of the physical processes operating in them. Recent reviews of physical mechanisms for the generation of flaring QPP can be found in Nakariakov 2007 and Nakariakov & Melnikov 2009.

 

 Event Date
Time Start  Time End
Flare Class Observed Periods  Bands Observed  Related Publications
12 March 2015 11:40 UT 12:08 UT M1.6 ~25 s

IRIS Fe XXI and Si IV, GOES 1-8 angstrom

Tian et al. 2016

10 September 2014 17:32 UT 17:56 UT X1.6 3--6 min

EUV, SXR

Fermi Gamma-ray, IRIS

Li & Jang 2015

Li et al. 2015

18 April 2014 12:31 UT 13:16 UT M7.3 ~171 s down to ~95 s IRIS C I, Si IV, O IV Brosius & Daw 2015
11 March 2013 06:51 UT 06:57 UT ? 6.4s in a group of Type III radio bursts 85–35 MHz Gauribidanur Observatory Sasikumar Raja & Ramesh 2013
20 July 2013 03:34 UT 03:44 UT C2.1 202 s, rapid decay 6–12 keV; EUV Kumar, Nakariakov, Cho 2015
14 May, 2013 00:00 UT 02:00 UT X3.2

15, 45, and 100 s

53 s, 72 s

17 GHz

SXR, RHESSI

Kolotkov et al. 2015

Chowdhary et al. 2015

18 January 2013 07:00 UT 07:03 UT ? 4.8s in a group of Type III radio bursts 85–35 MHz Gauribidanur Observatory Sasikumar Raja & Ramesh 2013
20 September 2012 06:36 UT 06:39 UT ? 4.5s in a group of Type III radio bursts 85–35 MHz Gauribidanur Observatory Sasikumar Raja & Ramesh 2013
06 July 2012 23:08 23:14 X1.1 22 s SXR, microwave, EUV, radio Huang et al. 2014
09 Mar 2012 03:25 UT 03:52 UT M6.4 60 s SXR, EUV 94 and 335 Å Simões et al. 2013
08 Mar 2012 08:40 08:42 C6.8 7.5 s

4 – 8 GHz SSRT,

HXR Fermi

Zhdanov et al. 2013
23-24 September 2011 23:48 UT 00:04 UT M1.9 ~3 min RHESSI HXR (25-50 keV), AIA EUV, Nobeyama (25-610 MHz, 2-17 GHz) Kumar, Nakariakov & Cho 2016
07 June 2011 06:21 UT 06:41 UT   about 1 min, not studied HXR (RHESSI, Fermi GRBM) Inglis & Hilbert 2013
14 Apr 2011 09:38 09:49 C2.3 34 min and 23 min 29 MHz, 25 MHz, 22 MHz, and 14 MHz Zaqarashvili et al. 2013
15 February 2011 01:44 UT 02:20 UT X2.2 8-32 s PROBA2/LYRA, HXR (RHESSI), NoRP (9 and 17 GHz), NoRH, SDO/EVE/ESP Dolla et al. 2012
5 July 2009 07:10:55 UT 07:12:35 UT C2.7

12 s

15 s

hard X-ray (RT-2 CORONAS PHOTON) Rao et al. 2010
2 June 2007 06:05 06:40 M2.5 about 100 s, modulated NoRH 17 GHz Kupriyanova et al. 2014
22 August 2005 00:44:00 UT 02:18:00 UT M2.6 240s; or from 2..5-5 min 25-50 keV X-rays (RHESSI), 17GHz, 34 GHz NoRH

Y. P. Li and W. Q. Gan, 2008 Reznikova, V. E. & Shibasaki, K. 2011

Liu et al. 2015

28 April 2005 02:30 UT 02:40 UT C3.0 180 s NoRH 17 GHz Sych et al. 2009
19 January 2005 08:05:00 UT 08:30:00 UT X1.3 2-4 min X-rays (RHESSI)

Ofman and Sui 2006 ;

Nakariakov et al. 2006;

Zimovets & Struminsky 2009

01 January 2005 00:28:00 UT 00:31:00 UT X1.7

40 s,

perhaps 13 s

hard X-ray (RHESSI); 17GHz and 34 GHz (NoRH) and gamma 2-6 MeV (CORONAS-F/SONG) Nakariakov et al. 2010
22 July 2004 00:15 UT 00:30 UT M9.1

19 s,

27 s

17 GHz, 34 GHz, NoRP, NoRH Kupriyanova et al. 2010; Zimovets et al. 2013;
20 July 2004 12:22 UT 12:36 UT M8.6 10 s, 12 s mm, dm radio (Bumishus, ETHZ Phoenix-2, GBSRBS, NRH) Kallunki, J.; Pohjolainen, S. 2012
21 May 2004 max: 23:50   -

26 up to 38 s

38 down to 26 s

40 up to 60

Microwave (Nobeyama) Kupriyanova et al. 2010
13 July 2004 00:08 UT 00:30 UT M6.7 about 20-30s about 17 GHz NoRP Pohjolainen, S.; Hori, K.; Sakurai, T. 2008 (Oscillations were not analysed in the paper)
04 November 2003 19:40 UT 20:00 UT   from one pulse every few seconds to 8-10 per second; also, visually, 1.5 min 212 and 405 GHz Zaitsev et al. 2014Kaufmann et al. 2009
03 November 2003 09:45:00 UT 10:00:00 UT X3.9 ? X-rays (RHESSI), Radio (Nancay Radioheliograph, Radio Solar Telescope Network) Dauphin et al. 2005
27 October 2003 max: 01:35     C6.2 Microwave (Nobeyama) Kupriyanova et al. 2010
15 June 2003 23:25 UT 23:46 UT X1.3 10, 15 and 19 s 1-18 GHz OVSA, 17 GHz NoRH, NoRP Fleishman et al. 2008
29 May 2003 01:01:00 UT 01:05:00 UT X1.2 1 min X-rays (RHESSI) ; ACS INTEGRAL; 17 GHz, 35GHz NoRH

Ning 2007 ;

Minoshima et al. 2008

(QPP not analysed)

Zimovets & Struminsky 2009

17 March 2003 max: 00:59     5 s Microwave (Nobeyama)

Kupriyanova et al. 2010

5-6 February 2003 21:00:00 UT 03:00:00 UT C2.1, C2.2, C3.4 8-12 min X-rays (RHESSI) Foullon et al. 2006
26 December 2002 04:48 UT 05:04 UT B8.1 2 min, 25 s SXR,3-6 keV (RHESSI) Ning, Z., 2014
20 October 2002 14:22:00 UT 14:36:00 UT M1.8 16s, 36s

8-12 keV, 25-50 keV (RHESSI)

Radio (RSTN)

Zimovets & Struminsky 2010
28 August 2002 21:43 21:45  

10 s

also 17 s in SXR

1–18 GHz, OVSA

HXR RHESSI

Mossessian & Fleishman 2012
24 August 2002 00:59:00 UT 01:08:00 UT X3.1 about 20 s

17 GHz, 34 GHz NoRH; 64–180 keV and 180–600 keV of CORONAS-F/SONG

Reznikova et al. 2009 (Oscs were not analysed; NoRH data were saturated)
12 August 2002 max: 02:17     12.5 s

Microwave (Nobeyama)

Kupriyanova et al. 2013
28 July 2002 max: 23:01   M2.2 8 s

Microwave (Nobeyama)

Kupriyanova et al. 2010
20 July 2002 21:27 21:33  

22 s,

13 s

1–18 GHz, OVSA

Mossessian & Fleishman 2012
18 July 2002 Max: 03:32   M2.2

9 s

17 s

Microwave (Nobeyama)

Kupriyanova et al. 2010
03 July 2002 02:09:00 UT 02:15:00 UT X1.5 11s, 18s, 28s Microwave (Nobeyama), Hard X-ray (RHESSI)

Inglis and Nakariakov, 2009

Kupriyanova et al. 2013

31 May 2002 Max: 00:07:25   M2.4 16-->9 s Microwave (Nobeyama)

Kupriyanova et al. 2010

14 March 2002 01:41 UT 01:49 UT M5.7 12.5 s, 27 down to 9 s 17 GHz, 34 GHz, NoRH, NoRP; 6-12 keV, 25-50 keV RHESSI Kupriyanova et al. 2010; Zimovets et al. 2013;
11 December 2001 08:01:00 UT 08:06:00 UT X2.8 12s Radio (Guaribidanur Radioheliograph, Mauritius Radio Telescope) Ramesh et al. 2005
25 October 2001 14:42:20 UT 14:50:50 X1.3 43s, 47s Hard X-ray (MTI)  Farnik, Karlicky and Svestka 2003
22 October 2001 17:47:40 UT 17:55:07 UT X1.2 25s Hard X-ray (MTI) Farnik, Karlicky and Svestka 2003
02 October 2001 17:10 17:18 C4.7 P_1 = 26-31 s and P_2 = 110 s 14-23 keV Yohkoh, HRT Tomczak & Szaforz, 2014
25 August 2001 16:31:09 UT 16:31:10 UT X5.3 20–100 ms SST 212 GHz flux Makhmutov et al. 2003
25 August 2001 22:10:00 UT 23:00:00 UT C9.6 40 - 80s White light (Big Bear Solar Observatory) McAteer et al. 2005
02 May 2001 00:35 UT 00:37 UT M1.8 25s; 50s HXT Yohkoh Jakimiec & Tomczak 2008
15 April 2001 13:19:00 UT 22:00:00 UT X14.4 Including 64s, 77s, 90s, 98s, 111s, 170s, 300s Radio (Ondrejov), Hard X-ray (Yohkoh) Meszarosova et al. 2006
06 April 2001 19:18:52 UT 19:18:53 UT X5.6 20–100 ms SST 212 GHz flux Makhmutov et al. 2003
05 April 2001 08:30 08:49   36 s, 94 s HXT Yohkoh Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015
03 April 2001 03:18 UT 03:43 UT X1.2 150 s; 206 s HXT Yohkoh; CGRO BATSE DISCLA Jakimiec et al. 2008
12 April 2001 09:39:00 UT 10:49:00 UT X2 Including 64s, 93s, 140 s, 160 s, 293 s, 320 s Radio (Ondrejov), Hard X-ray (Yohkoh), Soft X-ray (Yohkoh/SXT)  Meszarosova et al. 2006
29 March 2001 09:57:00 UT 10:04:00 UT X1.7 48 s Hard X-ray (MTI) Farnik, Karlicky and Svestka 2003
23 November 2000 05:35:00 UT 05:45:00 UT C5.4 15 s Radio (Guaribidanur Radioheliograph) Ramesh, Kathiravan and Narayanan 2004
24 November 2000 15:08 15:19   50 s HXT Yohkoh Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015
14 July 2000 10:03:00 UT 10:43:00 UT X5.7 Including 61s, 79s, 116s, 147s, 315s, 330s Radio (Ondrejov), Hard X-ray (Yohkoh) Meszarosova et al. 2006
23 June 2000 22:14 22:31   53 s HXT Yohkoh Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015
7 March 2000 19:46 19:53   28 s, 60 s HXT Yohkoh Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015
12 January 2000 01:32:00 UT 01:40:00 UT M2.8 8-11s, 14-17s Microwave (Nobeyama), Hard X-ray (Yohkoh)

Reznikova et al. 2007,

Melnikov et al. 2005, Nakariakov et al. 2003

28 August 1999 00:55:00 UT 00:58:00 UT M2.8 2.4s, 7s, 14s Microwave (Nobeyama)  Stepanov et al. 2004
10 November 1998 00:12:00 UT 00:17:00 UT C7.9 40s Microwave (Nobeyama), Hard X-ray (Yohkoh)

 Grechnev, White & Kundu 2003, Asai et al. 2001 

30 September 1998 13:29 UT 13:38 UT M2.8 140 s; 166 s HXT Yohkoh; CGRO BATSE DISCLA Jakimiec et al. 2008
18 August 1998 08:18 UT 08:23 UT X2.8

21 s; 28 s

154 s

HXT Yohkoh

Jakimiec & Tomczak 2008

Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015

28 May 1998 19:02 19:11   49 s HXT Yohkoh Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015
8 May 1998 01:55:00 UT 02:00:00 UT M3.1

16s

70 s

Microwave (Nobeyama), Hard X-ray (Yohkoh), CGRO BATSE DISCLA

 Stepanov et al. 2004, Inglis, Nakariakov & Melnikov 2008

Jakimiec & Tomczak 2008

Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015

6 May 1998 08:02 08:15   36 s HXR, Yohkoh

Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015

15 Apr 1998 07:40
07:54 C8.8 85 s

25–50, 50 –100 keV

9.4 GHz and 17 GHz

Wu et al., 2005

29 Jan 1994 11:20 11:32   28 s, 140 s HXR, Yohkoh

Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015

16 Jan 1994 23:11 23:21   46 s HXR, Yohkoh

Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015

27 Sept 1993 12:07 12:17   52 s, 114 s HXR, Yohkoh

Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015

26 June 1993 03:14 03:30   56 s, 92 s HXR, Yohkoh

Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015

14 May 1993 21:58 22:10  

Rising phase: 32±4 s

impulsive phase: 31±2 s

impulsive phase: 23 s

HXR, Yohkoh

Jakimiec & Tomczak, 2012

12 March 1993 17:52 18:04  

Rising phase: 56±5 s

impulsive phase: 16±1 s

impulsive phase: 26 s

HXR, Yohkoh Jakimiec & Tomczak, 2012
2 March 1993 21:05 21:30 M5.1

94 ± 8 s (rising phase)

134 s

Yohkoh HXT, GOES, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory

Jakimiec & Tomczak, 2014

22 Nov 1992 23:07 23:13   27 s HXR, Yohkoh

Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015

5 November 1992 06:15 UT 06:25 UT M2.0

6 s

6 and 12 s

NoRH, NoRP, Yohkoh/HXT

hard X-ray and microwave

  Goldvarg et al. 2013

Tsap et al. 2013

5 October 1992 09:24:00 UT 09:27:00 UT M2

4s, 28s

39 s, 68 s

Radio (Ondrejov, Zurich), Hard X-ray

HXR, Yohkoh

 Kliem, Karlicky and Benz 2000

Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015

6 September 1992 06:54 07:03   43 s HXR, Yohkoh Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015
20 August, 1992 09:03 UT 09:28   39 s HXR, Yohkoh Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015
28 June 1992 13:54 UT 14:00 UT M1.6 56 s; 66 s CGRO BATSE DISCLA, HXT Yohkoh

Jakimiec & Tomczak 2008

Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015

17 February 1992 08:00:00 UT 12:00:00 UT C4.1 ? 180 s Radio Chernov et al., 1998
6 February 1992 03:16 03:27   30 s, 55 s, 81 s HXR, Yohkoh Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015
18 December 1991 10:27 10:33   60 s HXR, Yohkoh Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015
17 November 1991 18:33 18:37   21 s, 55 s HXR, Yohkoh Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015
10 November 1991 20:05 20:12   36 s, 102 s HXR, Yohkoh Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015
02 November 1991 15:32 17:00 M4.8

rising phase: 129±3 s

impulsive: 164 s

decay phase: 115±10 s

HXR, SXR, Yohkoh Jakimiez & Tomczak, 2013
31 October 1991 09:08 09:13   35 s, 55 s HXR, Yohkoh Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015
24 October 1991 22:33  22:50   82 s HXR, Yohkoh Szaforz & Tomczak, 2015
11 July 1991 09:30:00 UT 12:00:00 UT - Including 35s, 30s, 24s, 19s Radio (Crimean Astrophysical Observatory) Baranov and Tsvetkov, 1994
20 April 1991 08:30:00 UT 10:15:00 UT X1.0 3min, 5min White light Jain and Tripathy, 1998
10 June 1990 ? ? - 143s X-ray (Granat Observatory)  Terekhov et al. 2002
23 May 1990 04:01 04:51 M8.7 1.5 s, 40 s Nanjing, Beijing, 2.84, 9.375, 15 GHz Qin, Li, Fu, Gao, 1996
15 November 1989 06:40:00 UT 07:28:00 UT X3.2 3min, 5min White light Jain and Tripathy, 1998
14 November 1988 14:30:00 UT 15:13:00 UT - 12s Radio (Trieste Astronomical Observatory)  Zlobec et al. 1992
6 September 1981 23:53:00 UT 23:54:00 UT - 2.5s Hard X-ray (Solar Maximum Mission) Desai et al. 1987 
7 June 1980 03:12:00 UT 03:13:30 UT - 8s Microwave (Nobeyama and Toyokawa Observatories), X-rays (ISEE-3 and P78-1) Kane et al. 1983, Kiplinger et al. 1983
6 November 1979 08:38:00 UT 08:39:00 UT - 2s, 6s Hard X-ray (Venera 12) Desai et al. 1987 
3 December 1978 20:30:00 UT 20:32:00 UT - 1.7s, 0.8s Hard X-ray (Venera 12, Prognoz 7) Bogovalov et al. 1983, Desai et al. 1987
22 September 1978 11:56:00 UT 13:30:00 UT - 2.1s - 2.4s Radio Urpo et al. 1981
12 April 1977 09:50:00 UT 10:30:00 UT - 60s Radio Trottet, Pick and Heyvaerts, 1979
29 September 1968 09:30:00 UT 09:39:00 UT - 1.7s Radio  Abrami, 1970
8 August 1968 18:15:20 UT 18:18:00 UT - 16s Microwave (Sigamore Hill Radio Obs.), X-rays Parks and Winckler 1969